Brief lecture summaries for the Introduction to Computers Course
Fall 2008

back to: Kanat's home page or the course home page

Click on a week for the lecture summaries:
Block the text you want to print, copy it to Word, then print the Word document.

24 - 28 August 2008

If you decide to purchase a computer, look for a PC with the following, minimum, attirbutes: 80 Gb hard drive, 2 Gb RAM and 2.0 Ghz processor (look at for hardware and for price comparisons). Look at CCVsoftware or Computer Products for Education or CampusTech for fantastic discounts (academic pricing) on software.

If you are looking for inexpensive textbooks, then search BookFinder4U or BooksPrice.


Storage of digital information
Long term storage resides on floppy discs (A: or B:), hard discs (C: or D:), CD, DVD, or thumb drives (D: or E:) – these discs are part of the computer on the desk (or floor). Information may also be stored on the local area network (drive letters F: through Z:) which is not part of the PC on your desk, but resides on hard discs somewhere on campus or on the Internet (which can exist anywhere on Earth).

When a file is retrieved from disc (long term storage) it is placed into RAM (short term storage). Short term storage (volatile memory) is known as RAM. All operations are done in RAM. Be sure to save your work (from RAM) to long term storage (a disc) often. Make many backups of your work – you can never have too many backups.

All files are stored in a folder specified at the time the file is created, saved, or copied to disk. If you change to a specific folder, then that (usually) becomes the current, or default, folder. Most of our work will be stored on the U: drive in the ENV1020F08 folder.

When the computer starts up, the operating system is retrieved from the hard disc (C:) and placed into RAM. The speed of the CPU (central processing unit) governs how fast the computer operates. More RAM allows more programs to be running at one time.


Access email by going to, then follow the instructions on screen. Your email address consists of your initials, followed by the last four digits of your social security number , and then followed by For example: Your initial password is a combination of your initials and the last four digits of your social security number. JSC sends a lot of information to your JSC email account (including grades). Email is a formal means of communication. All email must be well written, words must be properly spelled, grammar must be correct, the 'Subject Line' must be informative, and all email must have a signature block at the bottom.


Assignment (due 26 Aug 08): Send me an email that has the following information about your computer: operating system, speed of the CPU, amount of RAM, and size of the hard disc.


Files are stored on a hard disk, in the following fashion:

Drive example: C:
Folder example: \jobq\
Filename example: intro.doc

The complete path filename for the given file is therefore:


That file (C:\jobq\intro.doc) could contain different information than a file with a similar Name and EXTension that resides in another folder.


When saving files, be sure to select a drive and a folder. Name the file appropriately; the extension should be provided by the software. When you rename a file, be sure to provide the appropriate extension.


Filenames and Folder Structure
A file is a collection of related information; it can hold data (text or numbers) or programs (a set of instructions).

Each filename is described by a name and an extension. Filenames are not case sensitive and should not have blanks (spaces).

The name can be any length (use alphanumeric characters only – no spaces, commas, periods or symbols). The name is followed by a period, and then up to a three character extension. It is standard practice to attempt to keep the filename limited to eight characters.

You can use almost any combination of filenames and extensions. However, certain extensions are reserved. Do not create a file with the extensions .sys, .com, and .exe. Please note that most of the Windows applications supply an appropriate extension to the filename when the file is created.


The Root Directory and Folders (also known as subdirectories)
The Root Directory contains the basic information about the files in the computer. The root directory is represented by specific sectors on a fixed or floppy disk; it has a fixed size and position. Immediately preceding the root directory area is the FAT area. The File Allocation Table keeps a record of where files are stored on the disk and how the disk space is used. The boot area of the disk precedes the FAT area and it is a short machine language program which starts the loading of the operating system.

Folders may be created from the root folder (or root directory) or from other folders. All folders have a parent folder – the root folder has no parent. Each subfolder has two files called '.' and '..', these files ('.' and '..') indicate that the current folder is a subfolder and therefore has 'parents.' The backslash, \, is called a path specifier. It is used to separate one folder from another. The root folder is specified by the backslash only.


Wildcards for filenames
Wildcards are used when searching for files. There are two types of wildcards.

An asterisk (*) is a wildcard. It may be used in place of a name or an extension, and it means any file, or any name; its a wildcard.

A query (?) is also a wildcard. It replaces the specific character (and position) where it is used. The asterisk has a much larger range of appeal.

Use Windows Explorer to find a selected group of files. For example, all files that start with the letter 'G' would be G*.* Or, find all Word documents: *.doc. To 'wake up' Windows Explorer, right-click on the 'Start' button, then click Explore.


Homework (due 2 Sep 08): Send a proper email describing one thing learned in class today (include a subject in the subject line, greeting, signature block, proper spelling, and proper grammar).



1 - 5 September 2008

Tuesday: Used JSC WebMail to set up rules, options, mail folders, and signature blocks, in order to be proficient and productive with the use of email.

Please note, that when clicking on an email web link, the email program that 'wakes up' may not be setup to send email. This is the case on the JSC campus; Outlook Express 'wakes up', however, it is not set up for student use. Copy the email address to the software you use to send email.


For all future assignments: 

All spelling errors, errors in capitalization, and errors in punctuation will result in a two-point loss per occurrence (not to exceed 30 points per assignment).


Homework (due 4 Sep 08): Send me a properly written, informative, elegant, short email with an attached file. The Word document should be three pages long and use the 'force a new page' feature. This cannot be your notes, or my notes, from class.


Explored moving around a Word document and simple formatting commands.


Use the PC Productivity Guide to help with the software.


Homework (due 9 Sep 08):

end of assignment



8 - 12 September 2008

Tuesday: Brief introduction to Excel; use of autocorrect and symbols in Word; worked with footers and sections in Word.


Homework (due 11 Sep 08): Sections and Footers in Word; please do the following:

  1. Use the U:\env1020f08\leskanat\TitleThreeHW.doc.
  2. Save the file in your folder with your name attached (for example: TitleThreeHWkanat.doc – note: no spaces in filename).
  3. Change the font size to 18 point (throughout the text).
  4. Create three sections:
    w title page (no footer)
    w Institutional Narrative (find that subtitle, make it start a new page, new section, and start on page 100)
    w Faculty Characteristics (find that subtitle, make it start a new page, new section, and start on page 200)
  5. Email (properly written, addressed, signed...) document to Les.

end of assignment


Homework (due 16 Sep 08): Tabs and Indents in Word:

  1. Build a restaurant menu with at least five items.
  2. Set a tab at three inches for the item, and use a dot leader decimal tab set at five inches for the price.
  3. The price should have have a variable amount of numbers to right of the decimal (ranging from one to five; for example: $123.1 or $1.00045).
  4. Email (properly written, addressed, signed...) the document as an attachment to Les.

end of assignment



15 - 19 September 2008

An example of a figure caption and appropriate reference is presented below:


 be sure you reference properly -- no plagiarism!

Figure 1. Coronal Mass Ejection and Mt. Baker (NASA 2000).


NASA 2000. A Surprising CME. Retrieved on 14 September 2000 from


Homework (due 18 Sep 08): Importing figures, citing figures, and referencing style:

  1. Get three pictures from three different Internet sources and save appropriate citation data; use hanging indents and make an appropriate (style, format, font decoration, alphabetized...) reference list in Word.
  2. Write something about the pictures and refer to the pictures in the text; be sure to use three-part figure captions: Figure x. Title (author year).
  3. The Word document should have a cover page (no footer), text and figure pages in next section (with appropriate footer), and a reference section (on a new page).
  4. Email (properly written, addressed, signed...) the document as an attachment to Les.

end of assignment


Most of Thursday's class was devoted to referencing style and manipulation of figures (in Word).


Homework (due 18 [oops: 23] Sep 08): Getting fancy with the figures.

  1. Use u:\env1020f08\leskanat\messwithme2.doc.
  2. Give the figure the following caption: Figure 1. Your Name.
  3. Put the caption in a text box (use the drawing tools toolbar).
  4. Link the caption text box to the figure; have the text flow around the figure and caption.

    (I will click on the group and move it around the text to see if the figure and the text box stays together and the text flows around the group).

end of assignment



22 - 26 September 2008

Homework (due 25 Sep 08): Develop a functional financial accounting Excel spreadsheet and associated graph as discussed in class.



29 September - 3 October 2008

A few comments about email:

Be sure that the subject line in email, and the text in email, are informative and relevant. For example, when homework is submitted, I should know what to expect (description of assignment, due date, etc.) prior to opening the attached file.

Email is a proper form of communication and often the first contact one will have with a future employer. Everything written in email should follow the proper rules of English grammar, spelling, and use. Write well, write clearly, and edit. Do not rush to click 'send'.

Be careful when clicking 'send'. Make sure the recipient is the intended reader of the email. Rarely use 'reply to all' especially if the issue is contentious, or if you are mad about the issue addressed in the email.

One can never truly delete an email. There are numerous ways to recover deleted email many years after the email was deleted. Law enforcement agencies recover deleted email all the time.

Sending email does not guarantee that the recipient will receive (or read) the email. There are numerous reasons why email will never arrive (spam filters, email filters, global catch email names, poorly spelled email addresses, and more) and the sender will never know.


This week was a pre-break sick week; sorry. Class was canceled on Tuesday. On Thursday, Dr. Bacchus demonstrated the use of Excel with weather data.


Homework (due 3 Oct 08): Use Excel to manipulate weather data.

  1. Access file U:\JSCWeatherData\August2008.xls
  2. Calculate the rainfall amounts for each hour of the month of August 2008.
  3. Calculate the minimum, maximum, and average monthly temperature; and monthly rainfall totals for August 2008; results should be appropriately placed in the spreadsheet.
  4. Develop a graph of the temperature profile and the rainfall profile for August 2008; use appropriate graph titles, axes labels and legends; incorporate color and make the graphs presentable.
  5. Email (properly written, addressed, signed...) the document as an attachment to Les.

end of assignment



6 - 10 October 2008

Fall break – be careful and have fun.



13 - 17 October 2008

Homework (due 16 Oct 08): Use of Excel, Word, and Internet Explorer. First draft of this assignment is due on 16 Oct 08; final version due on 21 Oct 08. The first draft should have a little (or more) of everything described below.

What percentage of the population (total, male, and female) of Sudan, for the year 2025, will be 40 years of age or older? Use the US Census Bureau's web site for data Include the US Census Bureau's population pyramid for the Sudan in 2025 in your Word document (be sure to keep track of the appropriate reference information).

Use Internet Explorer, Word, and Excel. The rough steps to this solution follows:

  1. Click: pop pyramid > Sudan > submit query
  2. Click: extract data from IDB data aggregation
  3. Block off the data for 2025
  4. Copy the block
  5. Paste into Word
  6. Parse the data (remove spaces, put in a tab character ^t)
  7. Copy the results
  8. Open Excel: edit > paste special > Unicode text > ok

Use the techniques described in class in order to process the data in Word so it can be correctly parsed into Excel. See the PC Productivity Guide (Word > Getting data ready for Excel) to help parse the data into Excel.

  1. Create a Word document
  2. Title page (no footers), and make that Section One.
  3. Create a second section in the document with the following information: i) population pyramid, ii) Excel spreadsheet, iii) figure from the data in the Excel spreadsheet, iv) some text that describes each figure, and v) a reference list. Each of these are somewhat described below.
  4. The figure from the US Census Bureau (the population pyramid), and the Excel spreadsheet created to answer the question above, should be placed in Section Two of the Word document.
  5. Create some informative figure from the data in the Excel table and add that to the Word document. Use a figure caption, reference, and discuss it in the text.
  6. The figure and the table should be properly numbered and have appropriate captions.
  7. Be sure to write some text to describe the figure and the table. Be sure the text answers the question above.
  8. In the second section of the document, force a new page (Ctrl-enter), the last page of the document, and use the subtitle: References. Be sure to include the proper reference for the data.

end of assignment



20 - 24 October 2008

Introduction to Adobe Illustrator CS3.

Homework (due 28 Oct 08): Use Illustrator, Excel, Word, and Internet Explorer

  1. Develop an Illustrator poster; final size is 34" x 44".
  2. Include: title, name, and date.
  3. Include one Excel graph (with proper caption).
  4. Include two additional figures from the Internet (with proper captions).
  5. Align objects (text columns, figures, graphs, etc).
  6. Include a reference list (proper style) use at least three references.
  7. Use proper sentences (possibly paragraphs) that refer reader to the figures.
  8. Everything must be well-written.
  9. Print the poster to a .pdf file.
  10. Email the file to Les.

end of assignment



27 - 31 October 2008

Tuesday: Worked with Adobe Illustrator CS3.


Homework (due 4 Nov 08): Use Illustrator, Excel, Word, and Internet Explorer

  1. Build on the previous Illustrator assignment.
  2. Develop an Illustrator poster; final size is 34" x 44".
  3. Include: title, name, and date.
  4. Include at least one Excel graph (with proper caption).
  5. Include at least three additional figures from the Internet (with proper captions).
  6. Align objects (text columns, figures, graphs, etc).
  7. Include a reference list (proper style) use at least five references.
  8. Use proper sentences, write several paragraphs, that refer reader to the figures.
  9. Everything must be well-written.
  10. Choose appropriate font sizes and decorations.
  11. Use your creative license.
  12. Print the poster to a .pdf file.
  13. Email the .pdf file to Les not the .ai file.

end of assignment


Thursday: Introduction to Photoshop.



3 - 7 November 2008

Tuesday: Reviewed issues related to referencing style and problems with Illustrator.

Thursday: Introduction to PowerPoint.

Homework (due 11 Nov 08): Develop a five-minute PowerPoint presentation; be ready to present on Tuesday.



10 - 14 November 2008

General comments regarding the posters:


Tuesday: PowerPoint presentations (and later modifications). We will develop a grading rubric for PowerPoint presentations.


Homework (due 18 Nov 08): Present the penultimate draft (not final print) of the Illustrator poster. Please i) submit a color LaserJet printout (not the plotter) and, ii) email the .pdf file (be sure to select, then print, the Illustrator file to the .pdf printer do not save the Illustrator file as a .pdf file). Please note that the final version will be printed on the plotter at a later date only if the material on the poster is in proper format and tells a story. See the comments above for some of the general goals required for a good poster.


Grading Rubric for PowerPoint Presentations

assessment item



title page slide

informative title








thesis statement slide

clearly presents overall topic


abstract slide

succinct and informative


conclusion slide

appropriate summary highlighting thesis


reference list slide

proper style


the argument

relevant, accurate, and important


addresses major points of thesis


discussion adds content to slides


current ideas and data


statements referenced


spelling and punctuation


synthesis of existing ideas


appropriate use of scientific terms


graphs and figures

relevant, informative, and adds content


labeled – Figure #. Title (Author, Year)


at least five figures or graphs


presentation style

clearly spoken


speaker understands topic


dynamic, dramatic, exciting, well-paced


skillfully answers student questions


use of technology

page transitions


color scheme


slide animations


consistent visual theme


font size


class handout

six slides per page


enough copies


legible slides (pure black and white)


page numbers


properly stapled


late fee

loss of ten points per calendar day






17 - 21 November 2008

Work with Excel.

Homework (due 20 Nov 08): Use of slider bars in Excel

  1. Create a spreadsheet that uses a slider bar.
  2. The output of the slider bar must be used in an equation.
  3. Email the .xls file to Les.

end of assignment



24 - 28 November 2008

Thanksgiving Break.



2 - 5 December 2008

Reviewed Excel, Illustrator, and Word.



8 - 12 December 2008

Last week of classes; last review of software on Tuesday.

PowerPoint presentations will be made on Thursday; limit your presentation to eight minutes.


Probable topics for the final exam (10:30 a.m. on Thursday, 18 Dec 08):

Use PowerPoint to make a presentation.

Assignment (due 25 September 2007):

end of assignment.



24 - 28 September 2007

We reviewed PowerPoint, footers in Word, and generated a Table of Contents using Word.

Assignment (due 2 October 2007): Add a black slide to the beginning and end of the PowerPoint presentation that was due on 25 September 2007 and be ready to present your work to the class. Make sure it reads well, is properly formatted, and functions smoothly.


We need to focus on the following objectives:

We reviewed drives, folders, rights, and creation of subfolders. We also worked with Excel (frequency function).

 Assignment (due 6 Dec 2007) Purpose: practice for the final exam

Software: Explorer, Word, Photoshop, and email.

Goal: Acquire images from the Internet, modify them, and use them in a properly formatted paper.

  1. Save an image from the web to your folder on the U: drive
  2. Save associated information from the URL for the reference list.
  3. Use Photoshop and size the image to 200 x 200 pixels; save that image.
  4. Use Photoshop and edit the image (any changes) and save that 200 x 200 pixel image too.
  5. Import both images into a Word Document; include figure captions for both images.
  6. Copy text from U:\env1020f07\kanat\JSCstudentsFaculty.doc to your Word document.
  7. Add one or two sentences to the text that refers the reader to the figures.
  8. Make the text flow around the images.
  9. Include a cover page (no footer).
  10. Start numbering pages at page 101.
  11. Force a new page for the reference list and write a proper reference for the images captured from the web.
  12. Save the Word document in your folder as: lastWordImages.doc (i.e., mine would be kanatWordImages.doc).
  13. Email lastWordImages.doc to me; be sure the email has proper format.

(end of assignment)


The final exam (20 Dec 2007 at 10:30 a.m.) will require you to process selected data from the Internet, run some Internet searches (to collect images and background material), use the information to develop a Word document, some Excel graphs and calculations, a PowerPoint presentation, an Illustrator Poster, create folders to store your results, and send me a properly formatted email upon completion. All presentations will use the same data. Some of the details follow...



Topics for the Final Exam



  • references
  • import pictures
  • import graphs
  • write text
  • pagination


  • graphs
  • pictures
  • Import data
  • calculations


  • attach file
  • signature block
  • send email


  • graphs
  • images
  • text


  • make poster
  • graphs
  • pictures
  • text
  • references
  • artistic


  • change colors
  • size images


10 - 14 December 2007

Assignment (due 11 Dec 2007) Purpose: practice for the final exam

Software: Illustrator, Explorer, Excel, Word, Photoshop, and email.

Goal: Acquire images from the Internet, modify them, and use them in an Illustrator Poster.

  1. Save an image of Earth from Space to your folder on the U: drive.
  2. Save associated information from the URL for the reference list.
  3. Use Photoshop and size the image to 300 x 300 pixels; save that image.
  4. Use Photoshop, change the black colored space to red, and save that 300 x 300 pixel image too.
  5. Place both images in an 8.5" x 11" Illustrator file; include figure captions for both images.
  6. Copy text from U:\env1020f07\kanat\JSCstudentsFaculty.doc to two different text boxes in the Illustrator file.
  7. Import any graph from Excel.
  8. Add one or two sentences to the text that refers the reader to each of the three figures.
  9. Add a text box for the title, your name, and the date.
  10. Add a text box for the reference information.
  11. Be sure all objects are aligned nicely.
  12. Use some colors for some objects.
  13. Save the Illustrator file in your folder as: (i.e., mine would be
  14. Print the poster on the "214 plotter" printer.
  15. Email to me; be sure the email has proper format.

(end of assignment)


Assignment (due 13 Dec 2007) Purpose: practice for the final exam

Software: Explorer, Excel, Word, PowerPoint, and email.

Goal: Acquire data from the Internet, use Excel to make a graph, and prepare a PowerPoint presentation.

  1. Get data for temperature extremes in Burlington, in January, from
  2. Save associated information from the URL for the reference list.
  3. Use Word to get the data ready for Excel.
  4. Use Excel and sort the warm temperature data by year (for January); do the same for the cold temperature.
  5. Calculate averages.
  6. Make two graphs; save the Excel file.
  7. Use PowerPoint and import the spreadsheet and graphs from Excel.
  8. Add one sentence to refer the reader to each of the three figures.
  9. Create a cover slide.
  10. Create a reference slide.
  11. Be sure all objects are aligned nicely.
  12. Use some colors for some objects.
  13. Animate a few items.
  14. Save the PowerPoint in your folder as: lastnameTemperature.ppt (i.e., mine would be kanatTemperature.ppt).
  15. Email lastnameTemperature.ppt to me; be sure the email has proper format.

(end of assignment)



Assignment (due 19 Sep 06): Cash management spreadsheet



25 - 29 September 2006

PLEASE NOTE: All assignments, for all classes should meet minimum standards; in this case:

  1. Create an aesthetically pleasing title page (without page numbers) and use page numbers on subsequent pages.
  2. All figures must be referred to in the text and all figures require figure captions, for example: Figure 1. Title of Figure (Author, year).
  3. All references must be in the correct format.
  4. Spelling, grammar, parts of speech, capitalization, etc. should be correct.
  5. Email should be written using proper English and have a signature block.
  6. Make your deadlines – do the best you can in the time you have.


Assignment (due 3 Oct 2006): We need a project. Choose a topic that interests you for which long-term data can be found. That topic will be the basis for this assignment and subsequent assignments using Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Photoshop and Illustrator. Please create and submit a properly referenced and formatted Word document that has the following characteristics:

end of assignment 



2 - 6 October 2006

Fall break begins Wednesday morning; classes will be held on Monday and Tuesday.

General comments on assignment that was due on 3 Oct 06


9 - 13 October 2006

Thursday: worked with Photoshop.

Assignment (due 17 Oct 2006): Continue to work on the project. Submit a printed document (not email) that has the following content:


16 - 20 October 2006

Developed slider bars in Excel (for modeling purposes).

Reviewed Word, Excel, and PhotoShop.

Assignment: Continue research on your project; acquire data, images, and ideas.


23 - 27 October 2006

Assignment (due 26 Oct 06): Develop a PowerPoint presentation and be ready to present on Thursday. Use the following rubric:





30 October - 3 November 2006

Assignment (due 9 Nov 06): Penultimate draft of the Word document. Roughly follow the guidelines below (and incorporate all that we've done so far):

end of assignment


6 - 10 November 2006

Introduced Illustrator and reviewed some aspects of making graphs in Excel.

Please start to put a poster together using the information collected throughout the semester.



4 - 8 December 2006

Wednesday: Use of autocorrect, macros, shortcuts, and sorting text in Word.

Thursday: Mailmerge of an Excel database with a Word document; text-based functions in Excel.



Assignment (due 17 Nov 04): Juggle the heads of the presidential candidates.

 Assignment (due 17 Nov 04): Email first draft of Illustrator project. Be sure to include at least one figure (with appropriate caption), some text, a title, your name, the date, and a properly formatted reference.

 Today we reviewed the use of Windows Explorer and set some defaults (using the 'view - details' and 'view - options' selections). The drop down menus (right-click) can be used to copy, cut and paste files from one drive (and/or folder) to another drive (and or folder). The notes made in class can be found in the appropriate class folder on the JSC LAN.


Assignment (due 16 Sep): See notes stored on the P: drive for details of the homework assignment (it focuses on pagination). Please send me the completed Word document via email (and be sure that your email is well-written and has an attached signature block).


15 - 19 Sep 2003

Topics this week included developing a Table of Contents in Word, formatting the text, and an introduction to Excel.


Assignment (due 2 Oct 03): Get two pictures from the Internet and create a properly referenced and formatted Word document (as in class: title page, text and picture page, reference page). E-mail the document to Les and be sure your signature block is attached to a proper e-mail.



Assignment (due 14 Oct 03): Please email the following information:

  1. Title of Illustrator poster-Word document-PowerPoint presentation
  2. Thesis statement
  3. Bulleted list of content
  4. At least one properly referenced URL that has appropriate, long-term data.

A thesis is a proposition laid down or stated, especially as a theme to be discussed and proved, or to be maintained against attack.


Assignment (due 21 Oct 03): Create a functional accounting spreadsheet as described in class; be sure the graph tracks the grand total.


Assignment (due 23 Oct 03): Continue development of the project. E-mail a Word document that has at least two properly referenced (and referred to in the text) figures (either Excel graphs or images that were scanned or downloaded), two properly written references, and some well-written text.


Assignment (due 20 Nov): Submit the first draft of your poster in .ai format (Adobe Illustrator). Be sure to include a title, your name, date, a thesis statement, some text, a figure, some artwork, and at least two references (related to the figure and the text). Reduce the size of the print such that it can be printed on a Laserjet.

Final version of the posters must have:

Final draft of the paper must have:


Assignment (due 14 Nov 02): Submit laser printer draft of the poster with: 1 Excel graph, 3 referenced figures, 5 references, a name, title, date, & thesis.


18 - 22 November 02

Common notes on initial drafts of the poster

Assignment (due 21 Nov 02): Third draft of Illustrator project must include (at least) the following:


Submit a PowerPoint presentation using information from the poster. Be sure to include a title page, thesis statement, text and figures, a reference list, black slides at the beginning and end of the presentation, slide transitions, and object animations.

(end of assignments)



Cumulative final exam: 10:30 a.m., Thursday, 17 December 2009

back to: Kanat's home page or the course home page
send email to Leslie Kanat

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