Use the information below to become more proficient with some of the software and hardware available in the PLUIMMS lab at JSC.

 

JSC offers Microsoft Office (for the PC and MAC) for free to students; click here for more information.

 

The JSC Local Area Network

Login to the JSC LAN by using the following scheme:

  1. Your login name is eight characters long:
    Characters 1-3: the initials of your name (your middle initial might be an 'x')
    Characters 4-5: two digits representing the month of your birth
    Characters 6-7: two digits representing the day of your birth
    Character 8: 0 (type a zero)
  2. Your password is a combination of the three initials of your name followed by the last four digits of your social security number.

Each user is assigned a variety of drive letters. All students have the following drives assigned (other drive letters may be assigned as necessary and appropriate):

A: local floppy drive (full rights)
C: local hard drive (limited rights)
D: local CD-ROM (read only rights)
P: network drive (private to the user; full rights)
S: departmental drive (read only rights)
U: departmental drive (full rights for EHS majors)

Even though the computers might have current virus protection, newly released viruses are not protected because the virus definitions have not yet been created or released. So, be careful when you open attachments even if they come from someone known to you. Be sure the subject line pertains to you and is not a general statement that could apply to many people.

 

Problems with the hardware or software at JSC?

Send all requests for service to https://servicedesk.vsc.edu/. Do not hesitate and do not be shy. The JSC Information Technology group is here to help you be productive with your technological needs.

 

Do you need to send large files?

Typical file size allowed by JSC email is limited to about 15 Mb. If you need to send larger files, try https://zendto.vsc.edu/.

 

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MS Operating System

 

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Outlook on the Web (Office 365) Mail

Purpose: Access JSC mail from any computer attached to the Internet. Be sure to check all changes made to your email setup – send yourself some email. Access JSC email by typing http://mail.o365.vsc.edu/ into a browser, then follow the instructions on screen.

To change any of the following options, use of the settings icon (☼) on the top right-hand side of the screen of a Chrome browser.

Spell check is automatically enabled for all email; incorrectly spelled words are highlighted in red. Be sure to check the spelling prior to sending the document. Beware, words in the Subject line are not checked.


Topics for Outlook on the Web (Office 365) Mail

Signature Block

Mail Forwarding

Vacation Message

Block Spam

Create Rules


Signature Block
Purpose: all email should have a professional signature block automatically attached to all outgoing email.

  1. Click settings icon (☼) link on the top right, then click 'Mail'' (toward the bottom of the screen).
  2. Click Layout > Email signature (left side of screen).
  3. Check: 'Automatically include my signature on messages I send'.
  4. Type in the appropriate contact information in the email signature block field.
  5. Click 'save'.
  6. Click the encircled left-arrow (to the left of 'Options') to return to email.

 

Mail forwarding
Purpose: JSC sends a lot of email to your JSC email account. If you have another email account that you read on a regular basis, then forward all JSC mail to the other account.

  1. Click settings icon (☼) link on the top right, then click 'Mail'' (toward the bottom of the screen).
  2. Click Accounts > Forwarding.
  3. Select 'Start forwarding.
  4. Enter a valid email account in the forwarding field.
  5. Check: 'Keep a copy of forwarded messages in Outlook Web App'.
  6. Click: save.
  7. Click the encircled left-arrow (to the left of 'Options') to return to email.

 

Vacation Message
Purpose: If you won't be checking your email for a period of time, then let the software autorespond while you are away.

  1. Click settings icon (☼) link on the top right, then click 'Mail'' (toward the bottom of the screen).
  2. Click Automatic processing > Automatic replies.
  3. Select 'Send automatic replies'.
  4. Enter appropriate message into the message field.
  5. Click 'save'
  6. Click the encircled left-arrow (to the left of 'Options') to return to email.

 

Block Spam
Purpose: Check incoming mail for specific email addresses and delete the mail.

  1. Click settings icon (☼) link on the top right, then click 'Mail'' (toward the bottom of the screen).
  2. Click Accounts > Block or allow.
  3. Add email addresses to the 'Blocked Senders' field.
  4. Click 'save'.
  5. Click the encircled left-arrow (to the left of 'Options') to return to email.

Create Rules
Purpose: Check incoming mail for keywords and delete the mail.

  1. Click settings icon (☼) link on the top right, then click 'Mail'' (toward the bottom of the screen).
  2. Click Automatic Porcessing > Inbox and sweep rules.
  3. Click the plus sign (+) to add a rule.
  4. Name the rule and add a condtion.
  5. Select an option for 'Do all of the following'
  6. Click 'save'.
  7. Click the encircled left-arrow (to the left of 'Options') to return to email.

 


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MS Windows Explorer (My Computer)

Purpose: Locate files that have been saved to a mapped drive.

To start Windows Explorer: right-click on the 'Start' button, then click 'Open Windows Explorer', or use Window-Key-E.

Create a new folder

  1. Click on the icon for the parent folder or drive letter.
  2. Click: file > new > folder.
  3. Type in a name for the folder.
  4. Tap 'Enter'.

Select folders or files

Rename a folder or file

  1. Right-click on the icon for the folder or file.
  2. Click 'rename'.
  3. Type in new name (be sure to keep the extension).
  4. Tap 'Enter'.

Move (or copy) files or folders

  1. Right-click on the icon for file or folder to be moved (or copied).
  2. Click 'cut' (or 'copy').
  3. Right-click on the target folder.
  4. Click 'paste'.

Finding a file

  1. Click on the icon for 'My Computer' (top of the list).
  2. Click: search (on the toolbar).
  3. Click: All files and folders (on the left side of the screen).
  4. Enter the filename (or part of the filename).
  5. Click: search (the results will indicated the drive and folder where the file resides).

View details associated with a file

  1. Click: tools > folder options > view
  2. Check 'Display the full path in the address bar'
  3. Check 'Display the full path in the title bar'
  4. Uncheck 'Hide file extensions for known file types'
  5. Click: Apply
  6. Click 'Like Current Folder'

 

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Internet Explorer

Purpose: Locate online information.

 

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MS Excel 2016

Purpose: Use for accounting, lists, statistics, and production of graphs.

Topics for Excel 2016
General notes Name range of cells Formatting Copy a range of cells to Word Copy a graph to Word
Protect cells Graphing and Trendlines Print graphs Print a range of cells Series
Functions VlookUP function Link spreadsheets Sort data  
Statistical Functions in Excel
Data Analysis ToolPak Histograms Scroll bars for modeling Transpose rows and columns  
Video tutorials for statistical parameters Box plots (whisker plots) Regression with scatter plots Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Error bars

 

General notes

Use the 'FILE' tab (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'. The following convention is used in the notes below:

 

Additional comments:

Name a range of cells

Purpose: named ranges of cells can be quickly incorporated for use with functions.

  1. Select the range of cells to be named.
  2. Click: FORMULAS > Define Name [Defined Names].
  3. Fill in the 'Name' field with an informative name (use only letters).
  4. Click: OK.
  5. Use the Name Manager [Defined Names] to keep track of the named ranges in the spreadsheet.
  6. Use the named range directly in functions, for example: =sum(rangeName)
  7. To add a named range as a data source to a graph, use the following format for the Series Value: ='worksheetName'!rangeName

 

Formatting

 

Copy a range of cells to Word

  1. Block a range of cells to copy.
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon (or Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (use Alt-tab, or Windows-tab, if Word is already running).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Special.
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel Worksheet Object > OK (sometimes HTML format works better then Excel Worksheet Object).
  6. Drag handle to size the range of cells so it fits nicely on page.

 

Copy a graph to Word

  1. Remove Chart Area border: right-click on chart > Format Chart Area > Border > no line > x (to close the window).
  2. With the graph selected, click: HOME > copy icon (or Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (use Alt-tab, or Windows-tab, if Word is already running).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Special.
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel Chart Object > OK.
  6. Drag handle to size the graph so it fits nicely on page.

 

Protect cells

Purpose: Disable the ability to change the contents of a cell or range of cells. This is a two-step process, first unlock the cells that can be changed, then protect the worksheet.

  1. Block cells that should not be protected (that is, those cells that can be modified by the user).
  2. The default is lock, so click: HOME > Format [Cells] > clear the 'Locked Cell' option > OK.
  3. Click: HOME > Format [Cells] > Protect Sheet > enter a password > OK.

 

Graphing

  1. Block the cells that have the data to be plotted (not the labels).
  2. Click: INSERT > choose graph type by clicking icon [Charts] > choose graph detail.
  3. To label the series, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Select Data [Data] > highlight 'Series 1' > Edit > click on cell with label for the series (or type in a descriptor) > OK > OK.
  4. Repeat the above step to label all series (that is, do this for each column of data).
  5. To label the values on the axis, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Select Data [Data] > Edit (on the Horizontal Category Axis Labels window) > drag the cursor over the labels in the spreadsheet > OK.
  6. To label the horizontal axis title, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Add Chart Element [Chart Layouts] > Axis Titles > Primary Horizontal > type in an appropriate axis title (repeat a similar procedure for vertical axis title).
  7. To add a chart title, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Add Chart Element [Chart Layouts] > Chart Title > Above Chart > type in an appropriate chart title.
  8. Use a slow double-click to select a single point (or column) in a series in order to change its format.
  9. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.

To add a trendline (best-fit line) to an existing graph:

  1. Select an existing graph.
  2. Right-click on a data series.
  3. Click: Add Trendline (some chart types do not allow use of a trendline).
  4. Choose trendline options.
  5. Click 'x' to close the window'.

 

Print graphs

  1. Click in the 'Chart Area' of a graph (the graph must be selected).
  2. Click: FILE > Print (and view the results on the right side of the monitor).
  3. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon (on the bottom of the list of Print choices).
  4. Click: Print

 

Print a range of cells

To print selected cells:

  1. Block the range of cells to print (it could include graphs by highlighting the cells behind the graph).
  2. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Area icon [Page Setup] > Set Print Area.
  3. Click: FILE > Print (to view the output on the right side of the monitor).
  4. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon (on the bottom of the list of Print choices).
  5. Click the Print icon.

To print the row and column headers on each page for multiple page spreadsheets:

  1. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Titles icon [Page Setup].
  2. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at top' > click in row that will represent the top title > tap 'Enter'.
  3. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at left' > click in row that will represent the left title > tap 'Enter'.
  4. Click: OK

 

Series

Purpose: Create a sequential series of numbers or dates.

  1. Block off the first two cells in the series.
  2. Place the cursor over the little black box in the lower right corner of the blocked cells until the black cross cursor shows up.
  3. Drag to the limit of the series.

 

Functions

Purpose: Functions add a lot features and power to Excel.

  1. Click in the cell where the function is to be placed.
  2. Click: FORMULAS > choose a function [Function Library].
  3. Click: OK
  4. Click the red arrow in the appropriate window and drag the cursor over the cells that contain the data to be evaluated.
  5. Tap Enter, then click 'OK'.

 

VlookUP Function

Purpose: Assign the content of a cell based on the contents of a different cell. For example, in a grade book, one might assign a letter grade based on the numerical results of the weighted average of a student's performance.

  1. Define a two-column look up table somewhere in the spreadsheet. For example, a grading lookup table should have the numerical score in the left column and the associated letter grade to be assigned in the right column. The grade assigned will incorporate all scores between the numerical value to the left and the next numerical value.
  2. Select the cell to place the results of the function (i.e. where the letter grade will be placed; it should be placed adjacent to the current numerical score achieved by the student), click: FORMULAS > Lookup & Reference [Function Library] > vlookup.
  3. Lookup value field: click the white field, then click and drag the range of values to be looked up (i.e. the current numerical score for a student).
  4. Table array field: click the white field, then block off the entire two-column lookup table (as defined in Step 1 above).
  5. Edit the cell contents of the table array field to set it for 'absolute referencing' (i.e., put $ signs before both letters and both numbers in this field).
  6. Column index field: enter value '2' (the '2' returns the value in column two of the lookup table; i.e., the letter grade)
  7. Create a series using the contents of this cell defined in Step 2 above to extend the VlookUP function to other parts of the spreadsheet (i.e. extend the range to the numerical grades for all students).

 

Link spreadsheets

  1. Open a spreadsheet and copy a block of cells.
  2. Go to new spreadsheet that you want to link to and click in a cell.
  3. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Link (the chain-link icon under 'Other Paste Options').
  4. Save document.
  5. Exit everything and call up the linked document.

 

Sort data

  1. Highlight the rows of data to be sorted (drag cursor over the numbers in the left column). It is safer to highlight the entire row than highlighting a range of cells.
  2. Click: DATA > sort icon [Sort & Filter].
  3. Click the down arrow by ' Column Sort by' > choose a column.
  4. Choose 'Order'  by clicking the down arrow and make a choice.
  5. Make additional sorting choices by clicking 'Add Level', then repeat Steps 3 and 4 above.
  6. When ready, click: OK.

 

Data Analysis ToolPak

Use the Data Analysis ToolPak to access numerous statistical functions. For Windows, import the Data Analysis tab for Excel:

  1. Click: File > options > add-Ins.
  2. Select 'Excel Add-ins' for the Manage option at the bottom of the screen, and click 'Go'.
  3. Select 'Analysis ToolPak' and click 'OK'.

The Data Analysis ToolPak for Mac computers may be found at: http://www.analystsoft.com/en/products/statplusmacle/. Click on 'Free Download' beneath the heading: 'Analysis Toolpak for Mac'. This add-in doesn't work well, so, if you find a different, free add-in for the Excel ToolPak, then please let me know.

 

Histograms

Purpose: Learn how to enter an array and create a histogram. Histograms represent the frequency distribution a set of continuous data that has been divided into classes (also known as bins or non-overlapping intervals). Bar charts, on the other hand, are useful for presenting averages for one or more categories.

The Data Analysis ToolPak has a quick way to create a histogram:

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min values in the dataset (by inserting the appropriate functions); use the results to determine the bins value. Bins are used by Excel to determine frequency in each interval; use the ending value of the label to designate the bin.
  2. Create a bins column that covers the range of values for the data, for example: for example 10, 20, 30... (the first bin will account for all values less than or equal to 10, the second bin will account for all values greater than 10 and less than or equal to 20, the third bin will account for all values greater than 20 and less than or equal to 30...). Enter numbers for the bins column.
  3. Click: Data > Data Analysis > Histogram > OK.
  4. Use the red arrow to select the 'Input Range' (i.e. the data. If a name was defined for the range of data, then use: =rangeName in the field).
  5. Use the red arrow to select the bins (defined in Step 2 above).
  6. Designate a singe cell for the output range.
  7. Click 'OK'.
  8. Create a column for labels; use the concatenate function to automate this procedure. All labels should start with a greater-than symbol (>); see step 2 above, for example: >0-10, >10-20, >20-30...
  9. Create a graph using the results in the frequency column.

 

A more challenging way to create a histogram is described below. The benefit of this method is that it is dynamic (as more data are added, the histograms reflects the changes; use of the ToolPak requires recalculation each time). Without the use of the ToolPak, do the following:

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min values in the dataset (by inserting the appropriate functions); use the results to determine the bins value.
  2. Create three columns in the spreadsheet: Bins, Frequency, Intervals
  3. Intervals are used as labels for the bins, for example >0-0.1, >0.1-0.2, >0.2-0.3...
  4. Bins are used by Excel to determine frequency in each interval; use the ending value of the label to designate the bin, for example: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3... Do not specify a bin for for the last value. For example, if it were for grades, the last interval would be '>100' yet the last bin would be '99'.
  5. Click in the top cell of the frequency column and select (extend) the range of cells to be used for the frequency function. Be sure to select one more row than the range of bins (that is, include the row of the last interval). This range must be the same size as the bin array.
  6. In the first cell type: =frequency(
  7. Select the data array, then put in a comma.
  8. Select the bins array, then put in a parenthesis ')'.
  9. Click: 'ctrl-shift-enter' to display the results in the 'frequency' column.
  10. Create a graph using the results in the frequency column.


Scroll bars for modeling

Purpose: Use a scroll bar, or check box, to add functionality and automation to the spreadsheet.

  1. If the DEVELOPER tab is not displayed, click: FILE > Options > Customize Ribbon.
  2. Select 'Main Tabs' from the 'Choose commands from:' dropdown box.
  3. Select 'Developer' > add > OK.
  4. Click: DEVELOPER > Insert [Controls] > select 'Scroll Bar' icon from the 'Form Controls' (note: ActiveX Controls do not work on a Mac).
  5. Click and drag the cursor in the spreadsheet to draw a scroll bar of an appropriate size and in an appropriate location.
  6. Right-click on scroll bar > Format Control
  7. Enter values for: minimum value, maximum value, value (default value) and linked cell; the linked cell is the location of the results of moving the scroll bar; use the linked cell for modeling.
  8. Click: OK
  9. Click anywhere in the spreadsheet to activate the scroll bar (or any of the form controls).


Transpose rows and columns

Purpose: Swap rows and columns to transpose the data set. Situations arise when the data are easier to work with when the values are transposed.

  1. Block the entire range of cells to be transposed (including the labels).
  2. Click: Copy icon (or Ctrl-C).
  3. Click in a new spreadsheet (or in another location in the current spreadsheet where the results will be placed).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > transpose icon (or type tap the letter 'T').


Video tutorials

The RACC research project, in conjunction with the Center for Workforce Development & Diversity, produced an easy to follow series of videos to demonstrate how to use Excel 2010 to calculate a number of statistical parameters. go to http://epscor.w3.uvm.edu/2/node/1027 and scroll down to the bottom of page to find the appropriate video.



Box plots (whisker plots)

Purpose: Box plots, or whisker plots, display the distribution of data based on the minimum, 1st quartile (Q1), median (Q2), 3rd quartile (Q3), and maximum values. The skewness of the data set is represented by the tails (also referred to as whiskers).

Excel 2016 makes this process simple:

  1. Select the range of data to be plotted.
  2. Click: INSERT > down arrow on the 'insert statistic chart' icon [Charts] > Box and Whisker Plots.
  3. Right-click on a box > Format Data Series > Series Options > check 'Inclusive median'.
  4. Format the plot as appropriate.

 

NOTE: Excel 2016 excludes outliers when drawing whiskers and does not allow for the use of a logarithmic scale on the x-axis. To include the outliers in the whiskers, and use a logarithmic axis, be patient with the user-tolerant instructions below. If the dataset is highly skewed, consider using the user-tolerant instructions below.

 

Step 1: Create a data table.
Set up a small table with two columns labeled: ‘Actual’ and ‘For box plot'.
Add five rows to the table labeled: max, Q3, median, Q1, min (max must be in the top row).
Name data range by selecting the data, click: Formula > Define Name > enter name > OK (numbers are not allowed in names for data ranges).

Step 2: Complete table for the ‘Actual’ column.
For maximum: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > max > OK.
Enter the name of the data set defined above for the field Number1 > OK.

For Q3: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > quartile.inc > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Array, enter value of 3 for Quart > OK.

For median: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > median > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Number1 > OK.

For Q1: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > quartile.inc > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Array, enter value of 1 for Quart > OK.

For minimum: click in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > min > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Number1 > OK.


Step 3: Complete the 'For box plot' column.
The actual values need to be transposed to make the box plot. The working values in the ‘For box plot’ column are defined below and are calculated from the ‘Actual’ column. Enter the appropriate equations for the working values in the 'For box plot' column:
Max =max–Q3
Q3 =Q3–median
Median =Median–Q1
Q1 =Q1
Min =Q1–min

If you want multiple box plots in the same figure, then follow the steps above to create another 'For box plot' column in the table. Then, follow the same instructions below, but select both, adjacent, 'For box plot' columns to make multiple box plots in the same figure.


Step 4: Make the graph.
Now it is time to use the results in the ‘For box plot’ column (or columns) to make the box plot:
Click in any blank cell below the newly constructed data table.
Click: insert > column chart > stacked column.
Fill in the blank figure, click: Chart Tools > Design > Select Data > Add.
Enter Q1 for 'Series name' and select the appropriate cell (or cells) from the 'For box plot' column (or columns) for the series value using the red arrow, click OK. If the appropriate cells are not adjacent to each other, then use Ctrl-click to select non-adjacent cells.
Enter median for 'Series name' and select the appropriate cell (or cells) from the 'For box plot' column (or columns) for the series value using the red arrow, click OK.
Enter Q3 for 'Series name' and select the appropriate cell (or cells) from the 'For box plot' column (or columns) for the series value using the red arrow, click OK.

Change the Horizontal (Category Axis Label) by clicking ‘Edit’ > enter appropriate title > OK.

There are now three stacked boxes in the chart that need to be reformatted:
Right-click lowest box > format data series > remove fill and remove border.
Right-click middle box > format data series > remove fill and set border to 2 pixels.
Right-click top box > format data series > remove fill and set border to 2 pixels.

Add error bars for maximum and minimum values (to represent the max and min values):
Click in top box in the graph > Chart Tools > Design > Add Chart Element > Error Bars > More Error Bar Options.
Select ‘plus’ for direction.
Select ‘custom’ for Error Amount > Specify value > use the red arrow for Positive Error Value and select the max value in the ‘For box plot’ table > enter > OK.

Click below the second box where the lowest box exists, but now has no borders or fill, so it appears invisible. Alternatively, click in the middle box and use the down-arrow cursor key to select the lowest box.
Click: Chart Tools > Design > Add Chart Element > Error Bars > More Error Bar Options.
Select ‘minus’ for direction.
Select ‘custom’ for Error Amount > Specify value > use the red arrow for Minimum Error Value and select the min value in the ‘For box plot’ table > enter > OK.

Label the vertical axis appropriately.
Remove legend and the gridlines.
Congratulations.

 

Regression with scatter plots

Purpose: Use a scatter plot with a regression line to show the relationship between two sets of data. The hypothesis to be tested describes how the dependent variable (y-axis) responds to changes in the independent variable (x-axis).
  1. Block the cells in two columns that have the data to be plotted (not the labels). The independent variable should be in the left column with the dependent variable to the right.
  2. Click: INSERT > choose scatter plots icon [Charts] > choose graph detail (scatter plot with points only).
  3. To label the horizontal axis title, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Add Chart Element [Chart Layouts] > Axis Title > Primary Horizontal > type in an appropriate axis title (repeat a similar procedure for vertical axis title).
  4. If a chart title exists, right-click on the chart title, and delete it.

To add a regression line to the existing graph:

  1. Right-click on any data point in the series.
  2. Click: Add Trendline.
  3. Choose: Linear
  4. Check: 'Display R-squared value on chart'. The R2 value is a measure of variability. It represents the percentage of the variability in (y) that is explained by (x).
  5. Click 'x' to close the window.

Use the Data Analysis ToolPak to find the P-value:

  1. Click: DATA > Data Analysis [Analysis] > Regression > OK.
  2. Click the red arrow for 'Input Y Range' > drag the cursor over the data in column y > Enter.
  3. Click the red arrow for 'Input X Range' > drag the cursor over the data in column x > Enter.
  4. Check: 'Output Range' > click the associated red arrow > click in a cell beneath the graph > Enter > OK.
  5. The P-value is found in two cells: under 'Significance F' and in the cell noted by 'P-value' and 'X Variable'. Generally, the null hypothesis is rejected when the P-value is less than 0.05, and not rejected when the P-value is greater than 0.05.


Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Purpose: ANOVA is used to examine two or more data sets to determine if the population means are significantly different from each other; the t-Test is used for only two data sets. The hypothesis should assume that the population means are different.

  1. Click: DATA > Data Analysis [Analysis] > Anova: Single Factor > OK.
  2. Click the red arrow for 'Input Range' > drag the cursor over contiguous columns of data (and include column labels if they exist) > Enter.
  3. Check 'Labels in first row' if each column has a label.
  4. Check: 'Output Range' > click the associated red arrow > click in a cell beneath the graph > Enter > OK.
  5. If the P-value is <0.05 then reject the null hypothesis.



Error bars

Purpose: Add error bars to graphs. Each point on the graph, or column on the bar chart, must represent an average of a set of continuous variables.

  1. Create a data table with two rows:
    First row: calculate the averages of the continuous variables in each column, using =avg(range)
    Second row: calculate the standard error of the mean for each column, using =stdeva(range)/sqrt(count(range))
    note: range represents all the data for that data point (or column) and 'n' is the number of values used for the calculation in that column.
  2. Create a graph (see Graphing and Trendlines above) using the average values from the first row of the data table.
  3. Add error bars to represent the standard error of the mean:
    i) Click on the data series > Chart Tools > Design > Add Chart Element > Error Bars > More Error Bar Options.
    ii) Select ‘both’ for direction.
    iii) Select ‘custom’ for Error Amount > Specify value > use the red arrow for Positive Error Value and select the second row of the data table that has the standard error of the mean > enter > OK.
    iv) Click the red arrow for Negative Error Value and select the second row of the data table that has the standard error of the mean > enter > OK.
  4. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.


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MS Excel 2013

Purpose: Use for accounting, lists, statistics, and production of graphs.


Topics for Excel 2013
General notes Name range of cells Formatting Copy a range of cells to Word Copy a graph to Word
Protect cells Graphing and Trendlines Print graphs Print a range of cells Series
Functions VlookUP function Link spreadsheets Sort data  
Statistical Functions in Excel
Data Analysis ToolPak Histograms Scroll bars for modeling Transpose columns and rows  
Video tutorials for statistical parameters Box plots (whisker plots) Regression with scatter plots Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Error bars

 

General notes

Use the 'FILE' tab (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'.

In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized, [groups] are indicated in [brackets], and italicized words mean make a choice.

Name a range of cells

Purpose: named ranges of cells can be quickly incorporated for use with functions.

  1. Select the range of cells to be named.
  2. Click: FORMULAS > Define Name [Defined Names].
  3. Fill in the 'name' field with an informative name (use only letters).
  4. Click: OK.
  5. Use the Name Manager [Defined Names] to keep track of the named ranges in the spreadsheet.
  6. Use the named range directly in functions, for example: =sum(rangeName)
  7. To add a named range as a data source to a graph, use the following format for the Series Value: ='worksheetName'!rangeName

 

Formatting

 

Copy a range of cells to Word

  1. Block a range of cells to copy.
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon (or Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (use Alt-tab, or Windows-tab, if Word is already running).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Special.
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel Worksheet Object > OK (sometimes HTML format works better then Excel Worksheet Object).
  6. Drag handle to size the range of cells so it fits nicely on page.

 

Copy a graph to Word

  1. Remove Chart Area border: right-click on chart > Format Chart Area > Border > no line > x (to close the window).
  2. With the graph selected, click: HOME > copy icon (or Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (use Alt-tab, or Windows-tab, if Word is already running).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Special.
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel Chart Object > OK.
  6. Drag handle to size the graph so it fits nicely on page.

 

Protect cells

Purpose: Disable the ability to change the contents of a cell or range of cells. This is a two-step process, first unlock the cells that can be changed, then protect the worksheet.

  1. Block cells that should not be protected (that is, those cells that can be modified by the user).
  2. The default is lock, so click: HOME > Format [Cells] > clear the check from the 'Locked' option > OK.
  3. Click: REVIEW > Protect Sheet [Changes] > OK.

 

Graphing

  1. Block the cells that have the data to be plotted (not the labels).
  2. Click: INSERT > choose graph type by clicking icon [Charts] > choose graph detail.
  3. To label the series, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Select Data [Data].
  4. To label the values on the axis, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Edit (on the Horizontal Category Axis Labels window) > drag the cursor over the labels in the spreadsheet > OK.
  5. Click: series to be edited (1, 2, 3...) > Edit > type a description or click an appropriate cell, or, click on a cell that has the description for that data series> OK.
  6. Repeat the above step to label all series (that is, do this for each column of data).
  7. To label the horizontal axis title, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Add Chart Element [Chart Layouts] > Axis Title > Primary Horizontal > Title Below Axis > type in an appropriate axis title (repeat a similar procedure for vertical axis title).
  8. To add a chart title, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Add Chart Element [Chart Layouts] > Chart Title > Above Chart > type in an appropriate axis title.
  9. Use a slow double-click to select a single point (or column) in a series in order to change its format.
  10. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.

To add a trendline (best-fit line) to an existing graph:

  1. Select an existing graph.
  2. Right-click on a data series.
  3. Click: Add Trendline.
  4. Choose trendline options.
  5. Click 'x' to close the window'.

 

Print graphs

  1. Click in the 'Chart Area' of a graph (the graph must be selected).
  2. Click: FILE > Print (and view the results on the right side of the monitor).
  3. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon (on the bottom of the list of Print choices).
  4. Click: Print

 

Print a range of cells

To print selected cells:

  1. Block the range of cells to print (it could include graphs by highlighting the cells behind the graph).
  2. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Area icon [Page Setup] > Set Print Area.
  3. Click: FILE > Print (to view the output on the right side of the monitor).
  4. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon (on the bottom of the list of Print choices).
  5. Click the Print icon.

To print the row and column headers on each page for multiple page spreadsheets:

  1. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Titles icon [Page Setup].
  2. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at top' > click in row that will represent the top title > tap 'Enter'.
  3. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at left' > click in row that will represent the left title > tap 'Enter'.
  4. Click: OK

 

Series

Purpose: Create a sequential series of numbers or dates.

  1. Block off the first two cells in the series.
  2. Place the cursor over the little black box in the lower right corner of the blocked cells until the black cross cursor shows up.
  3. Drag to the limit of the series.

 

Functions

Purpose: Functions add a lot features and power to Excel.

  1. Click in the cell where the function is to be placed.
  2. Click: FORMULAS > choose a function [Function Library].
  3. Click: OK
  4. Click the red arrow in the appropriate window and drag the cursor over the cells that contain the data to be evaluated.
  5. Tap Enter, then click 'OK'.

 

VlookUP Function

Purpose: Assign the content of a cell based on the contents of a different cell. For example, in a grade book, one might assign a letter grade based on the numerical results of the weighted average of a student's performance.

  1. Define a look up table somewhere in the spreadsheet. For example, a grading lookup table might have the numerical score in the left column and the associated grade in the right column. The grade assigned will incorporate all scores between the numerical value to the left and the next numerical value.
  2. Select the cell to place the results of the function (i.e. where the letter grade will be placed), click: FORMULAS > Lookup & Reference [Function Library] > vlookup.
  3. Lookup value field: click the red arrow then click the value to be looked up (i.e. the numerical grade adjacent to the location where the formula was placed). Do not define an array at this time (i.e. the other grades will be dealt with in the last step below).
  4. Table array field: click the red arrow, then block off the entire two-column lookup table (as defined in Step 1 above).
  5. Edit the cell contents of the table array field to set it for 'absolute referencing' (i.e., put $ signs before both letters and both numbers in this field).
  6. Column index field: enter value '2' (the '2' returns the value in column two of the lookup table; i.e., the grade).
  7. Create a series using the contents of this cell defined in Step 2 above to extend the VlookUP function to other parts of the spreadsheet (i.e. extend the range to all grades).

 

Link spreadsheets

  1. Open a spreadsheet and copy a block of cells.
  2. Go to new spreadsheet that you want to link to and click in a cell.
  3. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Link (the chain-link icon).
  4. Save document.
  5. Exit everything and call up the linked document.

 

Sort data

  1. Highlight the rows of data to be sorted (drag cursor over the numbers in the left column). It is safer to highlight the entire row than highlighting a range of cells.
  2. Click: DATA > sort icon [Sort & Filter].
  3. Click the down arrow by ' Column Sort by' > choose a column.
  4. Choose 'Order'  by clicking the down arrow and make a choice.
  5. Make additional sorting choices by clicking 'Add Level', then repeat Steps 3 and 4 above.
  6. When ready, click: OK.

 

Data Analysis ToolPak

Use the Data Analysis ToolPak to access numerous statistical functions. For Windows, import the Data Analysis tab for Excel:

  1. Click: File > options > add-Ins.
  2. Select 'Excel Add-ins' for the Manage option at the bottom of the screen, and click 'Go'.
  3. Select 'Analysis ToolPak' and click 'OK'.

The Data Analysis ToolPak for Mac computers may be found at: http://www.analystsoft.com/en/products/statplusmacle/. Click on 'Free Download' beneath the heading: 'Analysis Toolpak for Mac'.

 

Histograms

Purpose: Learn how to enter an array and create a histogram. Histograms represent the frequency distribution a set of continuous data that has been divided into classes (also known as bins or non-overlapping intervals). Bar charts, on the other hand, are useful for presenting averages for one or more categories.

The Data Analysis ToolPak has a quick way to create a histogram:

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min values in the dataset (by inserting the functions); use the results to determine the bins value. Bins are used by Excel to determine frequency in each interval; use the ending value of the label to designate the bin.
  2. Create a bins column that covers the range of values for the data, for example: for example 10, 20, 30... (the first bin will account for all values less than or equal to 10, the second bin will account for all values greater than 10 and less than or equal to 20, the third bin will account for all values greater than 20 and less than or equal to 30...). Enter numbers for the bins column.
  3. Click: Data > Data Analysis > histogram > OK.
  4. Use the red arrow to select the 'Input Range' (i.e. the data).
  5. Use the red arrow to select the bins (defined in Step 2 above).
  6. Designate a singe cell for the output range.
  7. Click 'OK'.
  8. Create a column for labels; use the concatenate function to automate this procedure. All labels should start with a greater-than symbol (>); see step 2 above, for example: >0-10, >10-20, >20-30...
  9. Create a graph using the results in the frequency column.

 

A more challenging way to create a histogram is described below. The benefit of this method is that it is dynamic (as more data are added, the histograms reflects the changes; use of the ToolPak requires recalculation each time). Without the use of the ToolPak, do the following:

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min values in the dataset (by inserting the functions); use the results to determine the bins value.
  2. Create three columns in the spreadsheet: Bins, Frequency, Intervals
  3. Intervals are used as labels for the bins, for example >0-0.1, >0.1-0.2, >0.2-0.3...
  4. Bins are used by Excel to determine frequency in each interval; use the ending value of the label to designate the bin, for example: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3... Do not specify a bin for for the last value. For example, if it were for grades, the last interval would be '>100' yet the last bin would be '99'.
  5. Click in the top cell of the frequency column and select (extend) the range of cells to be used for the frequency function. Be sure to select one more row than the range of bins (that is, include the row of the last interval). This range must be the same size as the bin array.
  6. In the first cell type: =frequency(
  7. Select the data array, then put in a comma.
  8. Select the bins array, then put in a parenthesis ')'.
  9. Click: 'ctrl-shift-enter' to display the results in the 'frequency' column.
  10. Create a graph using the results in the frequency column.


Scroll bars for modeling

Purpose: Use a scroll bar, or check box, to add functionality and automation to the spreadsheet.

  1. If the DEVELOPER tab is not displayed, click: FILE > Options > Customize Ribbon.
  2. Select 'Main Tabs' from the 'Choose commands from' dropdown box.
  3. Select 'Developer' > add > OK.
  4. Click: DEVELOPER > Insert [Controls] > select 'Scroll Bar' icon from the 'ActiveX Controls' (note: ActiveX Controls do not work on a Mac, so, use 'Form Controls').
  5. Click and drag the cursor in the spreadsheet to draw a scroll bar of an appropriate size and in an appropriate location.
  6. Right-click on scroll bar > Properties.
  7. Enter values for: minimum value, maximum value, value (default value) and linked cell; the linked cell is the location of the results of moving the scroll bar; use the results for modeling.
  8. Close the properties window ('x')
  9. Deselect the 'Design Mode' by clicking on the 'Design Mode' icon; use the scroll bar.


Transpose rows and columns

Purpose: Swap rows and columns to transpose the data set. Situations arise when the data are easier to work with when the values are transposed.

  1. Block the entire range of cells to be transposed (including the labels).
  2. Click: Copy icon (or Ctrl-C).
  3. Click in a new spreadsheet (or in another location in the current spreadsheet).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > transpose icon (the lower-right icon of the paste group).


Video tutorials

The RACC research project, in conjunction with the Center for Workforce Development & Diversity, produced an easy to follow series of videos to demonstrate how to use Excel to calculate a number of statistical parameters. go to http://epscor.w3.uvm.edu/2/node/1027 and scroll down to the bottom of page to find the appropriate video.



Box plots (whisker plots)

Purpose: Box plots, or whisker plots, display the distribution of data based on the minimum, 1st quartile (Q1), median (Q2), 3rd quartile (Q3), and maximum values. The skewness of the data set is represented by the tails (also referred to as whiskers). Excel does not handle boxplots easily, so be patient with the user-tolerant instructions below or watch a video of this process using Excel 2010 at the RACC website.

Set up a small table with two columns labeled: ‘Actual’ and ‘For box plot'.
Add five rows to the table labeled: max, Q3, median, Q1, min.
Name data range by selecting the data, click: Formula > Define Name > enter name > OK (numbers are not allowed in names for data ranges).

Complete table for the ‘Actual’ column:
For maximum: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > max > OK.
Enter the name of the data set defined above for Number1 > OK.

For Q3: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > quartile.inc > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Array, enter value of 3 for Quart > OK.

For median: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > median > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Number1 > OK.

For Q1: click in the correct cell in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > quartile.inc > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Array, enter value of 1 for Quart > OK.

For minimum: click in the table > formula > insert function > category: statistical > min > OK.
Enter the name of the data set for Number1 > OK.

The actual values need to be transposed to make the box plot. The working values in the ‘For box plot’ column are defined below and are calculated from the ‘Actual’ column. Enter the appropriate equations for the working values in the 'For box plot' column:
Max =max–Q3
Q3 =Q3–median
Median =Median–Q1
Q1 =Q1
Min =Q1–min

If you want multiple box plots in the same figure, then follow the steps above to create another 'For box plot' column in the table. Then, follow the same instructions below, but select both, adjacent, 'For box plot' columns to make multiple box plots in the same figure.

Now it is time to use the results in the ‘For box plot’ column (or columns) to make the box plot:
Click in any blank cell below the newly constructed data table.
Click: insert > column chart > stacked column.
Fill in the blank figure, click: Chart Tools > Design > Select Data > Add.
Enter Q1 for 'Series name' and select the appropriate cell (or cells) from the 'For box plot' column (or columns) for the series value using the red arrow, click OK. If the appropriate cells are not adjacent to each other, then use Ctrl-click to select non-adjacent cells.
Enter median for 'Series name' and select the appropriate cell (or cells) from the 'For box plot' column (or columns) for the series value using the red arrow, click OK.
Enter Q3 for 'Series name' and select the appropriate cell (or cells) from the 'For box plot' column (or columns) for the series value using the red arrow, click OK.

Change the Horizontal (Category Axis Label) by clicking ‘Edit’ > enter appropriate title > OK.

There are now three stacked boxes in the chart that need to be reformatted:
Right-click lowest box > format data series > remove fill and remove border.
Right-click middle box > format data series > remove fill and set border to 2 pixels.
Right-click top box > format data series > remove fill and set border to 2 pixels.

Add error bars for maximum and minimum values (to represent the max and min values):
Click in top box > Chart Tools > Design > Add Chart Element > Error Bars > More Error Bar Options.
Select ‘plus’ for direction.
Select ‘custom’ for Error Amount > Specify value > use the red arrow for Positive Error Value and select the max value in the ‘For box plot’ table > enter > OK.

Click below the second box where the lowest box exists, but now has no borders or fill, so it appears invisible. Alternatively, click in the middle box and use the down-arrow cursor key to select the lowest box.
Click: Chart Tools > Design > Add Chart Element > Error Bars > More Error Bar Options.
Select ‘minus’ for direction.
Select ‘custom’ for Error Amount > Specify value > use the red arrow for Minimum Error Value and select the min value in the ‘For box plot’ table > enter > OK.

Label the vertical axis appropriately.
Remove legend and the gridlines.
Congratulations.

 

Regression with scatter plots

Purpose: Use a scatter plot with a regression line to show the relationship between two sets of data. The hypothesis to be tested describes how the dependent variable (y-axis) responds to changes in the independent variable (x-axis).
  1. Block the cells in two columns that have the data to be plotted (not the labels). The independent variable should be in the left column with the dependent variable to the right.
  2. Click: INSERT > choose scatter plots icon [Charts] > choose graph detail (scatter plot with points only).
  3. To label the horizontal axis title, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Add Chart Element [Chart Layouts] > Axis Title > Primary Horizontal > type in an appropriate axis title (repeat a similar procedure for vertical axis title).
  4. If a chart title exists, right-click on the chart title, and delete it.

To add a regression line to the existing graph:

  1. Right-click on any data point in the series.
  2. Click: Add Trendline.
  3. Choose: Linear
  4. Check: 'Display R-squared value on chart'. The R2 value is a measure of variability. It represents the percentage of the variability in (y) that is explained by (x).
  5. Click 'x' to close the window.

Use the Data Analysis ToolPak to find the P-value:

  1. Click: DATA > Data Analysis [Analysis] > Regression > OK.
  2. Click the red arrow for 'Input Y Range' > drag the cursor over the data in column y > Enter.
  3. Click the red arrow for 'Input X Range' > drag the cursor over the data in column x > Enter.
  4. Check: 'Output Range' > click the associated red arrow > click in a cell beneath the graph > Enter > OK.
  5. The P-value is found in two cells: under 'Significance F' and in the cell noted by 'P-value' and 'X Variable'. Generally, the null hypothesis is rejected when the P-value is less than 0.05, and not rejected when the P-value is greater than 0.05.


Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Purpose: ANOVA is used to examine two or more data sets to determine if the population means are significantly different from each other; the t-Test is used for only two data sets. The hypothesis should assume that the population means are different.

  1. Click: DATA > Data Analysis [Analysis] > Anova: Single Factor > OK.
  2. Click the red arrow for 'Input Range' > drag the cursor over contiguous columns of data (and include column labels if they exist) > Enter.
  3. Check 'Labels in first row' if each column has a label.
  4. Check: 'Output Range' > click the associated red arrow > click in a cell beneath the graph > Enter > OK.
  5. If the P-value is <0.05 then reject the null hypothesis.



Error bars

Purpose: Add error bars to graphs. Each point on the graph, or column on the bar chart, must represent an average of a set of continuous variables.

  1. Create a data table with two rows:
    First row: calculate the averages of the continuous variables in each column, using =avg(range)
    Second row: calculate the standard error of the mean for each column, using =stdeva(range)/sqrt(count(range))
    note: range represents all the data for that data point (or column) and 'n' is the number of values used for the calculation in that column.
  2. Create a graph (see Graphing and Trendlines above) using the average values from the first row of the data table.
  3. Add error bars to represent the standard error of the mean:
    i) Click on the data series > Chart Tools > Design > Add Chart Element > Error Bars > More Error Bar Options.
    ii) Select ‘both’ for direction.
    iii) Select ‘custom’ for Error Amount > Specify value > use the red arrow for Positive Error Value and select the second row of the data table that has the standard error of the mean > enter > OK.
    iv) Click the red arrow for Negative Error Value and select the second row of the data table that has the standard error of the mean > enter > OK.
  4. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.


top of section




MS Excel 2010

Purpose: Use for accounting, lists, and production of graphs.


Topics for Excel 2010
General notes Formatting Copy blocks of cells to Word Sort data Print a range of cells
Graphing and Trendlines Print graphs Protect cells Functions Series
Frequency array (for histograms) VlookUP function Link spreadsheets Scroll bars for modeling  

 

General notes

Use the 'FILE' tab (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'.

In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] within the TABS are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

 

Formatting

 

Copy blocks of cells to Word

  1. Block a range of cells to copy.
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon (or Ctrl-c)
  3. Switch to Word (use Alt-tab if Word is already running).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Special
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel Worksheet Object > OK.
  6. Drag handle to size the object (spreadsheet) so it fits nicely on page.

 

Sort data

  1. Highlight the rows of data to be sorted (drag cursor over the numbers in the left column). It is safer to highlight the entire row than highlighting a range of cells.
  2. Click: DATA > sort icon [Sort & Filter] > choose ' Column Sort by' by clicking the down arrow > choose 'Order'  by clicking the down arrow.
  3. Make additional sorting choices by clicking 'Add Level', then repeat Step 2 above.
  4. When ready, click: OK.

 

Print a range of cells

  1. Block the range of cells to print (it could include graphs by highlighting the cells behind the graph).
  2. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Area icon [Page Setup] > Set Print Area.
  3. Click: FILE > Print (to view the output on the right side of the monitor).
  4. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon (on the bottom of the list of Print choices).
  5. Click the Print icon.

    To Print the row and column headers on each page for multiple page spreadsheets:

  6. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Titles icon [Page Setup].
  7. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at top' > click in row that will represent the top title > tap 'Enter'.
  8. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at left' > click in row that will represent the left title > tap 'Enter'.
  9. Click: OK

 

Graphing

  1. Block the cells that have the data to be plotted (not the labels).
  2. Click: INSERT > choose graph type by clicking icon [Charts] > choose graph detail.
  3. To label the series, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Select Data [Data].
  4. To label the values on the axis, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Edit (on the Horizontal Category Axis Labels window) > drag the cursor over the labels in the spreadsheet > OK.
  5. Click: series to be edited (1, 2, 3...) > Edit > type a description or click an appropriate cell > OK.
  6. Repeat the above step to label all series (that is, do this for each column of data).
  7. To label the horizontal axis title, click: CHART TOOLS > LAYOUT > Axis Titles [Labels] > Primary Horizontal Axis Title > Title Below Axis > type in an appropriate axis title (repeat a similar procedure for vertical axis title).
  8. To add a chart title, click: CHART TOOLS > LAYOUT > Chart Title [Labels] > select location, then type in an appropriate axis title.
  9. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.

To add a trendline (best-fit line) to an existing graph:

  1. Select an existing graph.
  2. Right-click on a data series.
  3. Click: Add Trendline.
  4. Choose trendline options.
  5. Click 'Close'.

 

Print graphs

  1. Click in the 'Chart Area' of a graph.
  2. Click: FILE > Print (and view the results on the right side of the monitor).
  3. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon (on the bottom of the list of Print choices).
  4. Click: Print

 

Protect cells

Purpose: Disable the ability to change the contents of a cell or range of cells. This is a two-step process, first unlock the cells that can be changed, then protect the worksheet.

  1. Block cells that should not be protected (that is, those cells that can be modified by the user).
  2. Click: HOME > Format [Cells] > Format Cells > clear the check from the 'Locked' option > OK.
  3. Click: REVIEW > Protect Sheet > OK.

 

Functions

Purpose: Functions add a lot features and power to Excel.

  1. Click in the cell where the function is to be placed.
  2. Click: FORMULAS > choose a function [Function Library].
  3. Click: OK
  4. Click the red arrow in the appropriate window and drag the cursor over the cells that contain the data to be evaluated.
  5. Tap Enter, then click 'OK'.

 

Series

Purpose: Create a sequential series of numbers or dates.

  1. Block off the first two cells in the series.
  2. Place the cursor over the little black box in the lower right corner of the blocked cells until the black cross cursor shows up.
  3. Drag to the limit of the series.

 

Frequency array

Purpose: Learn how to enter an array and create a histogram.

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min (by inserting the functions).
  2. Create a data table with name, 'bins' and 'score'; bins are the counting interval for the frequency function. For example, 10, 20, 30… to count the number of occurrences for values between 0-10, 11-20, and so on. A '10' in the 'bins' column indicates all values between 0 to 10. Enter the 'bins' values in the bins column.
  3. Click in the first cell where the results of the frequency function are to be placed (that is, to the right of the first element of the 'bins' array, i.e. in the 'score' column).
  4. Click: FORMULAS > More Functions [Function Library] > statistical > frequency.
  5. Click on the red arrow in the `data array' window (in order to select the data to be analyzed).
  6. Drag and block all data in the column to be analyzed.
  7. Click on the red arrow in the `bins' window (in order to define the bins for the calculation).
  8. Drag and block the cells to be used as 'bins' for the frequency calculations.
  9. Click 'OK'.
  10. Block the entire range for the results (i.e. the score) of the frequency calculation (near all the bins, in the 'score' column); this block should be the same size as the bins array.
  11. Click in the white formula bar, also known as the cell contents window (this acts like typing in a function).
  12. Hold down Ctrl and Shift, then tap Enter (this defines the array); the results are displayed in the 'score' column.

 

VlookUP Function

Purpose: Assign the content of a cell based on the contents of a different cell. For example, in a grade book, one might assign a letter grade based on the numerical results of the weighted average of a student's performance.

  1. Define a look up table somewhere in the spreadsheet. For example, a grading lookup table might have the numerical score in the left column and the associated grade in the right column. The grade assigned will incorporate all scores between the numerical value to the left and the next numerical value.
  2. Select the cell to place the results of the function (i.e. where the letter grade will be placed), click: FORMULAS > Lookup & Reference [Function Library] > vlookup.
  3. Lookup value field: click the red arrow then click the value to be looked up (i.e. the numerical grade adjacent to the location where the formula was placed). Do not define an array at this time (i.e. the other grades will be dealt with in the last step below).
  4. Table array field: click the red arrow, then block off the entire two-column lookup table (as defined in Step 1 above).
  5. Edit the cell contents of the table array field to set it for 'absolute referencing' (i.e., put $ signs before both letters and both numbers in this field).
  6. Column index field: enter value '2' (the '2' returns the value in column two of the lookup table; i.e., the grade).
  7. Create a series using the contents of this cell defined in Step 2 above to extend the VlookUP function to other parts of the spreadsheet (i.e. extend the range to all grades).

 

Link spreadsheets

  1. Open a spreadsheet and copy a block of cells.
  2. Go to new spreadsheet that you want to link to and click in a cell.
  3. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Link (the chain-link icon).
  4. Save document.
  5. Exit everything and call up the linked document.

 

Scroll bars for modeling

Purpose: Use a scroll bar, or check box, to add functionality and automation to the spreadsheet.

  1. If the DEVELOPER tab is not displayed, click: FILE > Options > Customize Ribbon.
  2. Select 'Main Tabs' from the 'Choose commands from' drop-down box.
  3. Select 'Developer' > add > OK.
  4. Click: DEVELOPER > Insert [Controls] > select 'Scroll Bar' icon from the 'ActiveX Controls'.
  5. Click and drag the cursor in the spreadsheet to draw a scroll bar of an appropriate size and in an appropriate location.
  6. Right-click on scroll bar > Properties.
  7. Enter values for: minimum value, maximum value, value (default value) and linked cell; the linked cell is the location of the results of moving the scroll bar; use the results for modeling.
  8. Close the properties window ('x')
  9. Deselect the 'Design Mode' by clicking on the 'Design Mode' icon; use the scroll bar.

 

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MS Excel 2007

Purpose: Use for accounting, lists, and production of graphs.


Topics for Excel 2007

General notes

Formatting

Copy blocks of cells to Word

Sort data

Print a range of cells

Graphing and Trendlines

Print graphs

Protect cells

Functions

Series

Frequency array (for histograms)

VlookUP function

Link spreadsheets

Scroll bars for modeling

 

 

General notes

Use the Office button (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'. In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] within the TABS are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

 

Formatting

 

Copy blocks of cells to Word

  1. Block a range of cells to copy.
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon (or Ctrl-c)
  3. Switch to Word (use Alt-tab if Word is already running).
  4. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Special
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel Worksheet Object > OK.
  6. Drag handle to size the object (spreadsheet) so it fits nicely on page.

 

Sort data

  1. Highlight the rows of data to be sorted (drag cursor over the numbers in the left column). It is safer to highlight the entire row than highlighting a range of cells.
  2. Click: DATA > sort icon [Sort & Filter] > choose 'sort by column' > choose order
  3. Make additional sorting choices by selecting additional 'Copy Levels'
  4. When ready, click: OK.

 

Print a range of cells

  1. Block the range of cells to print (it could include graphs by highlighting the cells behind the graph).
  2. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Area icon [Page Setup] > Set Print Area.
  3. Click: Office Button > Print right arrow icon > Print Preview.
  4. Make appropriate choices with the Page Setup icon [Print].
  5. Click the Print icon.

    Print the row and column headers on each page for multiple page spreadsheets:

  6. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Print Titles icon [Page Setup].
  7. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at top' > drag cursor over the cells that will be the top title.
  8. Click red arrow in field: 'Rows to repeat at left' > drag cursor over the cells that will be the left title.
  9. Click: OK

 

Graphing

  1. Block the cells that have the data to be plotted (not the labels).
  2. Click: INSERT > choose graph type by clicking icon [Charts] > choose graph detail.
  3. To label the series, click: CHART TOOLS > DESIGN > Select Data [Data].
  4. Click: series to be edited (1, 2, 3...) > Edit > type a description or click an appropriate cell > OK.
  5. Repeat the above step to label all series.
  6. To label the horizontal (category) Axis Labels, click: Edit > block the cells that have the descriptions > OK > OK.
  7. To add axis labels and a chart title, click: CHART TOOLS > LAYOUT > Chart Title [Labels] > select location.
  8. Click on 'Chart Title' in graph and replace with an appropriate title.
  9. Click Axis Titles [Labels] > Primary Horizontal > select location.
  10. Click on 'Axis Title' in graph and replace with an appropriate title.
  11. Click Axis Titles [Labels] > Primary Vertical > select location.
  12. Click on 'Axis Title' in graph and replace with an appropriate title.
  13. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.

To add a trendline (best-fit line) to an existing graph:

  1. Select an existing graph.
  2. Right-click on a data series.
  3. Click: Add Trendline.
  4. Choose trendline options.
  5. Click 'OK'.

 

Print graphs

  1. Click in the 'Chart Area' of a graph.
  2. Click: Office Button > Print right arrow icon > Print Preview.
  3. Click: Print icon

 

Protect cells

Purpose: Disable the ability to change the contents of a cell or range of cells. This is a two-step process, first unlock the cells that can be changed, then protect the worksheet.

  1. Block cells that should not be protected (that is, those cells that can be modified by the user).
  2. Click: HOME > Format [Cells] > Format Cells > clear the check from the 'Locked' option > OK.
  3. Click: REVIEW > Protect Sheet > OK.

 

Functions

Purpose: Functions add a lot features and power to Excel.

  1. Click in the cell where the function is to be placed.
  2. Click: FORMULAS > InsertFunction [Function Library].
  3. Choose a function.
  4. Click: OK
  5. Click the red arrow in the appropriate window and drag the cursor over the cells that contain the data to be evaluated.
  6. Tap Enter, then click 'OK'.

 

Series

Purpose: Create a sequential series of numbers or dates.

  1. Block off the first two cells in the series.
  2. Place the cursor over the little black box in the lower right corner of the blocked cells until the black cross cursor shows up.
  3. Drag to the limit of the series.

 

Frequency array

Purpose: Learn how to enter an array and create a histogram.

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min (by inserting the functions).
  2. Create a data table with name, 'bins' and 'score'; bins are the counting interval for the frequency function. For example, 10, 20, 30… to count the number of occurrences for values between 0-10, 11-20… Enter the 'bins' in the bins column.
  3. Click in the first cell where the results of the frequency function are to be placed (to the right of the first element of the 'bins' array, i.e. in the 'score' column).
  4. Click: FORMULAS > Insert function [Function Library] > category: statistical > frequency > OK.
  5. Click on the red arrow in the `data array' window (in order to select the data to be analyzed).
  6. Drag and block the data in the column of interest, then hit `Enter'.
  7. Click on the red arrow in the `bins' window (in order to define the bins for the calculation).
  8. Drag and block the cells to be used as 'bins' for the frequency calculations, then hit Enter.
  9. Click OK.
  10. Block the entire range for the results (i.e. the score) of the frequency calculation (near all the bins, in the 'score' column); this block should be the same size as the bins array.
  11. Click in the white formula bar, also known as the cell contents window (this acts like typing in a function).
  12. Hold down Ctrl and Shift, then tap Enter (this defines the array); the results are displayed in the 'score' column.

 

VlookUP Function

Purpose: Assign the content of a cell based on the contents of a different cell. For example, in a grade book, one might assign a letter grade based on the numerical results of the weighted average of a student's performance.

  1. Define a look up table somewhere in the spreadsheet. For example, a grading lookup table might have the numerical score in the left column and the associated grade in the right column.
  2. Select the cell to place the results of the function (i.e. where the letter grade will be placed), click: FORMULAS > InsertFunction [Function Library] > vlookup > OK.
  3. Lookup value field: click the red arrow then click the value to be looked up (i.e. the numerical grade) > Enter. Do not define an array at this time (i.e. the other grades will be dealt with in the last step below).
  4. Table array field: click the red arrow, then block off the entire look up table (as defined in Step 1 above).
  5. Edit the cell contents of the table array field to set it for 'absolute referencing' (i.e., put $ signs before both letters and both numbers in this field).
  6. Column index field: enter value '2' (the '2' returns the value in column two of the lookup table; i.e., the grade).
  7. Create a series using the contents of this cell to extend the VlookUP function to other parts of the spreadsheet (i.e. extend the range to all grades).

 

Link spreadsheets

  1. Open a spreadsheet and copy a block of cells.
  2. Go to new spreadsheet that you want to link to and click in a cell.
  3. Click: HOME > paste icon down arrow > Paste Link.
  4. Save document.
  5. Exit everything and call up the linked document.

 

Scroll bars for modeling

Purpose: Use a scroll bar, or check box, to add functionality and automation to the spreadsheet.

  1. If the DEVELOPER tab is not displayed, click: Office button > Excel Options > Popular > select 'Show Developer Tab in the Ribbon' > OK.
  2. Click: DEVELOPER > Insert [Controls] > select 'Scroll Bar' icon.
  3. Click and drag the cursor in the spreadsheet to draw a scroll bar of an appropriate size and in an appropriate location.
  4. Right-click on scroll bar > Properties.
  5. Enter values for: minimum value, maximum value, value (default value) and linked cell; the linked cell is the location of the results of moving the scroll bar; use the results for modeling.
  6. Close the properties window ('x')
  7. Deselect the 'Design Mode' by clicking on the 'Design Mode' icon; use the scroll bar.

 

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MS Excel 2003

Purpose: Use for accounting, lists, and production of graphs.


Topics for Excel

General notes

Formatting

Copy blocks of cells to Word

Sort data

Print a range of cells

Graphing

Fancy axis labels

Add trendlines

Print graphs

Protect cells

Functions

Series

Insert frequency array (for histograms)

VlookUP function

Link spreadsheets

Slider bar

Print titles (spreadsheet headers)

 

 

 

 

General notes

Formatting

Copy blocks of cells to Word

  1. Block the range of cells to copy.
  2. Click: edit > copy.
  3. Switch to Word (i.e. Alt-tab).
  4. Click: edit > paste special.
  5. Choose: Microsoft Excel worksheet object > OK.
  6. Drag handle to size the object so it fits nicely on page.

Sort data

  1. Highlight the rows of data to be sorted (drag cursor over the numbers in the left column). It is safer to highlight the entire row than highlighting a range of cells.
  2. Click: data > sort.
  3. Make appropriate choices.

Print a range of cells

  1. Block the range of cells to print (it could include graphs by highlighting the cells behind the graph).
  2. Click: file > print area > set print area.
  3. Click on the icon with the hand lens (i.e. print preview).
  4. Click setup, then use the four tabs to set the printing style.
  5. Click print.

Graphing

  1. Block the cells that have the data to be plotted (not the labels).
  2. Click on the chart wizard icon.
  3. Choose graph type, then click 'next'.
  4. To label the data (x-axis), if necessary, click the 'series' tab.
  5. Click the red arrow in the 'category (X) axis label' window.
  6. Block the cells that contain the category axis labels, hit Enter, then next.
  7. Enter appropriate terms for title, x-axis label, y-axis label, then click next.
  8. Create chart as an object in this sheet.
  9. Click: finish.
  10. Cut the graph from this sheet and paste it into a new sheet; rename new sheet.
  11. Mess around with the graph until it looks good.

Fancy Axis Labels
Purpose: Make the x-axis labels more informative by placing the magnitude of the y-value on the x-axis.

  1. Right click on the chart.
  2. Click: chart options.
  3. Click: 'data table' tab.
  4. Click: 'show legend', > OK.

Add Trendlines
Purpose: Add a trendline (best-fit line) to an existing graph.

  1. Select an existing graph.
  2. Right-click on the data series.
  3. Click: add trendline.
  4. Choose trend/regression type.
  5. Click on options tab and select 'Display equation' and 'Display R2' (if so chosen).
  6. Click 'OK'.

 To project the trendline into future values:

  1. Select an existing graph.
  2. Right-click on the data series.
  3. Click: add trendline.
  4. Choose trend/regression type.
  5. Click: options > forecast
  6. Select the number of units into the future
  7. Format the trendline so it looks good.
  8. Click 'OK'.

 Print graphs

  1. Click in the 'chart area' of a graph.
  2. Click on the icon with the hand lens (i.e. print preview).
  3. Click setup, then use the four tabs to set the printing style.
  4. Click print.

Protect cells
Purpose: Disable the ability to change the contents of a cell or range of cells.

  1. Block cells that should not be protected.
  2. Click: format > cells > protection, then uncheck the 'lock' option.
  3. Click: tools > protect > protect sheet.

Functions
Purpose: Functions add a lot features and power to Excel.

  1. Click in the cell where the function is to be placed.
  2. Click: insert > function > choose the function > OK.
  3. Click the little red arrow, then block the cells to be evaluated.
  4. Tap Enter, then click 'OK'.

Series
Purpose: Create a sequential series of numbers or dates.

  1. Block off the first two cells in the series.
  2. Place the cursor over the little black box in the lower right corner of the blocked cells until the black cross cursor shows up.
  3. Drag to the limit of the series.

Frequency array
Purpose: Learn how to enter an array and create a histogram.

  1. Determine the range of data by calculating the max and min (by inserting the functions).
  2. Create a data table with name, 'bins' and 'score'; bins are the counting interval for the frequency function. For example, 10, 20, 30… to count the number of occurrences for values between 0-10, 11-20… Enter the 'bins' in the bins column.
  3. Click in the first cell where the results of the frequency function are to be placed (to the right of the first element of the 'bins' array, i.e. in the 'score' column).
  4. Click: Insert > function > statistical > frequency > OK.
  5. Click on the red arrow in the `data array' window (in order to select the data to be analyzed).
  6. Drag and block the data in the column of interest, then hit `Enter'.
  7. Click on the red arrow in the `bins' window (in order to define the bins for the calculation).
  8. Drag and block the cells to be used as 'bins' for the frequency calculations, then hit Enter.
  9. Click OK.
  10. Block the entire range for the results (i.e. the score) of the frequency calculation (near all the bins, in the 'score' column); this block should be the same size as the bins array.
  11. Click in the white formula bar, also known as the cell contents window (this acts like typing in a function).
  12. Press Ctrl-Shift, then tap Enter (this defines the array).

VlookUP Function
Purpose: Assign the content of a cell based on the contents of a different cell. For example, in a grade book, one might assign a letter grade based on the numerical results of the weighted average of a student's performance.

  1. Define a look up table somewhere in the spreadsheet. For example, a grading lookup table might have the numerical score in the left column and the associated grade in the right column.
  2. Select the cell to place the function (i.e. where should the letter grade be placed), click: insert > function > vlookup > OK.
  3. Lookup value: click the red arrow then click the value you want to look up > Enter.
  4. Table array: click the red arrow, then block off the entire look up table (two columns by some number of rows).
  5. Column index: type '2'.
  6. Edit the cell contents of the table array to set it for 'absolute referencing' (i.e., put $ signs before the letters and numbers).
  7. Create a series using the contents of this cell to extend the VlookUP function to other parts of the spreadsheet.

 Link spreadsheets

  1. Open a spreadsheet and copy a block of cells.
  2. Go to new spreadsheet that you want to link to and click in a cell.
  3. Click: edit > paste special > paste link.
  4. Save document.
  5. Exit everything and call up the linked document.

Slider bar

Use a slider bar, or check box, to add functionality and automation to the spreadsheet.

  1. Right-click to the right of the toolbars and select the Control Toolbox menu.
  2. Click the icon with the drafting tools (the Design Mode icon).
  3. Select the scroll bar icon.
  4. Click and drag the cursor to draw a scroll bar of an appropriate size and in an appropriate location.
  5. Right-click on scroll bar and select 'properties'.
  6. Enter values for: linked cell, max, and min.; the linked cell is the location of the results of moving the slider; use the results for modeling.
  7. Exit the design mode by clicking on the Design Mode icon.

Print titles (spreadsheet headers)

Use this option when printing spreadsheets the cover several pages; the row or column headers will be printed on each page.

  1. Click: File > Page Setup.
  2. Select the 'Sheet' tab.
  3. Define the print area (the range of cells to be printed) by clicking the red arrow in the 'Print area' window.
  4. Click in the spreadsheet and block off (drag) the range of cells to be printed.
  5. Press: 'Enter'.
  6. Define the rows (or columns) to be repeated as the headers on each page by clicking the red arrow in the 'Rows to repeat at top' window.
  7. Click in the spreadsheet and block off (drag) the range of cells to be printed at the top of each page.
  8. Press: 'Enter.
  9. Click: OK
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FrontPage 2003

Purpose: Develop web pages with a graphical user interface and minimal knowledge of HTML coding.


Topics for FrontPage 2003

Frames

Anchors (bookmarks)

 

 

 


Frames
Purpose: Create web pages where the text in some frames (windows) change whereas others remain constant. It provides a nice menu system for a suite of web pages. 

  1. Click: file > new.
  2. Select (from the right hand side): 'More page templates'.
  3. Click the 'Frames page' tab.
  4. Click on a style (for example: 'Contents'), then click: OK.
  5. Either 'Set Initial Page' (if you have the text already saved as an HTML file) or create a 'New Page'.
  6. Repeat the above step for each frame.
  7. Save the file. This file will open up and access the information in the files specified in the above steps.

Anchors (bookmarks)
Purpose: Link to a specified position on an HTML page (by default, all links end up at the top of an HTML page).

  1. Go to the place in the document where the link will end up.
  2. Click: insert > bookmark.
  3. Type a name for a bookmark (i.e. anchor).
  4. Click: OK.
  5. Save the file.
  6. Go to the place where the link will be located and highlight the link.
  7. Right-click on link and select: hyperlink.
  8. Select filename from list.
  9. Click: bookmark.
  10. Select the bookmark (from the list).
  11. Click: OK > OK.
  12. Save your work!
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MS PowerPoint 2013

Purpose: Use for presentations (sequential images portrayed on the screen).


Topics for PowerPoint 2013

General notes

Insert picture

Slide transitions

Object animations

Hyperlink settings

Add text boxes

Drawing tools

Custom shapes

 

 


General notes

Use the Office button (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen).

The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'.

In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

A few ideas to work efficiently:

 

Insert picture
Purpose: Import an existing image file.

  1. Click: INSERT > Picture [Images]
  2. Choose some file from somewhere and make appropriate choices.

or

  1. Select an on-screen image (click on an image).
  2. Click: Edit > Copy.
  3. Switch back to PowerPoint and select the appropriate page.
  4. Click: HOME > Paste [Clipboard]

 

Slide transitions
Purpose: Animate the transition between slides.

  1. Select a slide.
  2. Click: ANIMATIONS > select transition icon [Transition to This Slide] > set Duration [Timing].

 

Object animations
Purpose: Animate an object within a slide (including text).

  1. Click on object to animate.
  2. Click: ANIMATIONS > select animation icon [Animations]
  3. Click: Effect Options [Animation] > select type
  4. Adjust 'Start' and 'Duration [Timing].
  5. Click 'Animation Pane' [Advanced Animation] to work with all animations on the slide.

 

Hyperlink settings
Purpose: Allows hyperlinks to be made from an object on the page to any other page.

  1. Right click on object.
  2. Click: Hyperlink.
  3. Click: 'Place in This Document' (from the 'Link to' window to hyperlink to another slide in this document).
  4. Select slide > OK.

 

Adding text boxes

  1. Click: INSERT > Text Box [Text].
  2. Click (and drag) on the slide where the text should be inserted and type (or paste) the text.
  3. Size the text box by dragging a handle.
  4. To format all text within the text box select the text box; a selected text box has a solid border (not a broken line); to format some text within the text box, block of the appropriate text.
  5. Make appropriate format and text decoration features.

 

Drawing tools
Adjust the layering of objects:

  1. Click on the object to be brought forward or sent back.
  2. Click: FORMAT > 'Bring to Front' (or 'Send to Back') [Arrange]

Align objects:

  1. Click on first object to align.
  2. Shift-click on subsequent objects to be aligned.
  3. Click: FORMAT > Align icon [Arrange] > make appropriate choice.

To turn off (or adjust) the "snap-to" feature:

  1. Click: the down arrow in View [Show].
  2. Deselect 'Snap objects to grid.

Custom Shapes
Edit any shape to fit precisely and accurately portray the subject; the shape can then be animated.

  1. Click: Insert > Shapes [Illustrations] > curve icon.
  2. Roughly trace the shape you want on the screen and double-click to finish the drawing.
  3. To make it easier to trace the object in detail, right-click on the object > Format Shape > Fill > No fill.
  4. Click on the shape to adjust > Edit Shapes [Insert shapes] > Edit Points.
  5. Click on a point to adjust its position; drag the handles around a point to change curvature.
  6. Right-click on the shape line to add points or delete points.
 

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MS PowerPoint 2007

Purpose: Use for presentations (sequential images portrayed on the screen).


Topics for PowerPoint 2007

General notes

Insert picture

Slide transitions

Object animations

Hyperlink settings

Add text boxes

Drawing tools

 

 

 


General notes

Use the Office button (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'. In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] within the TABS are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

 

Insert picture
Purpose: Import an existing image file.

  1. Click: INSERT > Picture [Illustrations]
  2. Choose some file from somewhere and make appropriate choices.

or

  1. Select an on-screen image (click on an image).
  2. Click: Edit > Copy.
  3. Switch back to PowerPoint and select the appropriate page.
  4. Click: HOME > Paste [Clipboard]

 

Slide transitions
Purpose: Animate the transition between slides.

  1. Select a slide.
  2. Click: ANIMATIONS > select transition icon [Transition to This Slide].

 

Object animations
Purpose: Animate an object within a slide (including text).

  1. Click on object to animate.
  2. Click: ANIMATIONS > 'Custom Animations [Animations] > Add Effect > Entrance > make appropriate choices.
  3. Right-click on the down-arrow associated with the animation and adjust 'timing' and 'effects' options.

 

Hyperlink settings
Purpose: Allows hyperlinks to be made from an object on the page to any other page.

  1. Right click on object.
  2. Click: Hyperlink.
  3. Click: 'Place in This Document' (from the 'Link to' window).
  4. Select slide > OK.

 

Adding text boxes

  1. Click: INSERT > Text Box [Text].
  2. Click on the slide where the text should be inserted and type (or paste) the text.
  3. Size the text box by dragging a handle.
  4. To format all text within the text box select the text box; a selected text box has a solid border (not a broken line); to format some text within the text box, block of the appropriate text.
  5. Make appropriate format and text decoration features.

 

Drawing tools
Adjust the layering of objects:

  1. Click on the object to be brought forward or sent back.
  2. Click: FORMAT > 'Bring to Front' (or 'Send to Back') [Arrange]

Align objects:

  1. Click on first object to align.
  2. Shift-click on subsequent objects to be aligned.
  3. Click: FORMAT > Align icon [Arrange] > make appropriate choice.
 

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MS PowerPoint 2003

Purpose: Use for presentations (sequential images portrayed on the screen).


Topics for PowerPoint 2003

General notes

Insert picture

Slide transitions

Object animations

Action settings

Add text boxes

Drawing tools

 

 

 


General notes

Insert picture
Purpose: Import an existing image file.

  1. Click: insert > picture > from file.
  2. Choose some file from somewhere.

or

  1. Select on on-screen image (click on an image).
  2. Click: edit > copy.
  3. Click: edit > paste (into a PowerPoint page).

Slide transitions
Purpose: Animate the transition between slides.

  1. Select a slide.
  2. Click: slide show > slide transitions > then make selections.

Object animations
Purpose: Animate an object (including text).

  1. Right-click on object.
  2. Custom animation.
  3. Choose effect by clicking 'entry animation and sound'.
  4. Be sure to select 'timing' and 'effects' options.

Action settings
Purpose: Allows hyperlinks to be made from an object on the page to any other page.

  1. Right click on object.
  2. Click: 'action settings'.
  3. Click: hyperlink > make some selections.

Adding text boxes

  1. Click on 'text box' icon on bottom of screen.
  2. Click on slide where text box belongs.
  3. Type text into the box.
  4. Block text in block > right-click on block > choose font and select appropriate size and color.

Drawing tools
Adjust the layering of objects:

  1. Click on the object to be brought forward or sent back.
  2. Click: draw (lower left of screen) > order.

Align objects:

  1. Click on first object to align.
  2. Shift-click on subsequent objects to be aligned.
  3. Click: draw (lower left of screen) > align > make appropriate choice.
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MS Word 2013

Purpose: Use to write documents.


Topics for Word 2013
General notes Editing notes Moving around the document Footnotes

Numbering and bullets

Insert a table Sorting text Page numbering and sections Table of Contents Bringing pictures into Word
Margins Tabs and hanging indents Macros and shortcut keys    
Mail merge using an Excel database Getting data ready for Excel Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word Bringing Excel graphs into Word  


General notes

Use the FILE tab (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'.

In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

 

Editing notes

 

Moving around the document

Purpose: Use the keyboard to move the cursor.

 

Footnotes

Purpose: To put comments in the footer that are numbered sequentially throughout the text.

  1. Select the Print Layout view, click: VIEW > Print Layout [Views].
  2. Place the cursor in the document where a footnote is to be placed.
  3. Click: REFERENCES > Insert Footnote [Footnote].
  4. Enter appropriate footnote information.

 

Numbering and bullets

Purpose: Create automatically numbered or bulleted lists.

  1. Click: HOME, then click the numbering or bullet icon, then start typing the list,
    or,
    Block a list, then click: HOME > then choose the number or bullet icon.
  2. To change the bullet style or numbering style, click the down arrow adjacent to the bullet icon (or numbering icon) > then make a choice.
  3. To disable the automatic bullet and numbering system, click: FILE > Options > Proofing > Autocorrect Options > Autoformat > deselect 'Automatic Bulleted Lists'.

 

Insert a table

Purpose: build a table within Word.

  1. Place the cursor in document where you want to start a new table.
  2. Click: INSERT > Table.
  3. Choose appropriate number of columns and rows from the graphical array and click.

To customize a table:

  1. Click anywhere in table.
  2. Click: TABLE TOOLS > DESIGN or LAYOUT
  3. Adjust the table anyway you want.

 

Sorting text

Purpose: to sort rows of text for lists.

  1. Block the text to sort.
  2. Click: HOME > sort icon (AZ↓) [Paragraph].
  3. Make appropriate choices.

 

Page numbering and sections

Purpose: Create sections in order to control to the style of the footer or header (which includes page numbering) in each section.

For example, a title page and table of contents would be one section without a footer or header (no page numbers), the body of the text would be the second section with page numbers that start at page number one, and the appendices would be a third section with a completely different footer (or header) and page number style.

The simplest way to insert page numbers, although with very little control:

  1. Click: INSERT > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Bottom of Page > select style.

To create different sections with different footers (a skill that should be mastered):

  1. Remove any hard page breaks – let the section break force a new page.
  2. Move the cursor to the location where you want add a section break (and new page).
  3. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Breaks icon [Page Setup] > Section Breaks Next Page.
  4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 above to create as many sections as required.
  5. Move the cursor to the section where you want to add a footer, INSERT > Footer icon [Header & Footer] > Edit Footer.
  6. Turn off 'Link to Previous' by clicking: Link To Previous icon [Navigation]. Now the footers in both sections are not linked so changes made in one footer will not affect the other footer.
  7. Add appropriate footer information and add automatic page numbering by clicking: Quick Parts [Insert] > Field > Page > choose format > OK.
  8. Move to the second (or next) section by clicking: HEADER & FOOTER TOOLS > DESIGN > Next [Navigation].
  9. Reset page numbering in any section by clicking: HEADER & FOOTER TOOLS > DESIGN > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Format Page Numbers > Start At > choose a page number to start.

Remember, forcing a new page (by pressing Ctrl-Enter) does not start a new section; the footer remains the same.
Force a new page when it is appropriate to have a subheading or paragraph start at the top of a new page.
Creating new sections allow for control of the information presented in the footer.

 

Table of contents

  1. Use an existing Word document and block off text (for example, a subheading or a few words) to be used as a heading in the Table of Contents (TOC).
  2. Click REFERENCES > Add Text icon [Table of Contents] > select appropriate level.
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all of the entries to be used in the TOC.
  4. Click in the section of the document where the TOC is to be created. This section should be near the top of the document. Tap Ctrl-Enter to force a new page so the TOC is on its own page.
  5. Click: REFERENCES > Table of Contents [Table of Contents] > select a default style (or define a new style).

Once the TOC has been generated, and the documented edited, the TOC may need to be regenerated (because the headings may have moved to different pages from the editing process). To regenerate the TOC:

  1. Click: REFERENCES > Update Table [Table of Contents] > make a selection > OK.

The style and format of the headings and the TOC may be modified.

  1. Click: REFERENCES > Table of Contents [Table of Contents] > Custom Table of Contents.
  2. Click: Modify > select level > Modify > make appropriate choices.
  3. Click: OK > OK > OK > Yes.

 

Bringing pictures into Word

  1. Click: INSERT > Picture.
  2. Locate the file in a folder, then click: Insert.
  3. Drag a handle on the figure to resize the figure (keep the shift key depressed to maintain the aspect ratio).
  4. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click on the figure > Wrap Text > Square.

Better yet, get fancy with figures by creating a text box for the figure caption, group the figure with the caption, and make the text flow around the group. Do the following:

  1. Click picture and adjust Picture Shape, Picture Border, and Picture Effects [Picture Styles].
  2. Make the text flow around the figure: right-click on the figure > Wrap Text > Square.
  3. Click: INSERT > Text Box [Text] > Simple Text Box
  4. Type in the figure caption, for example: Figure 1. Title of Figure (Author, Year).
  5. Remove border, right-click on text box:  Format Shape > Line > No line > Close (x).
  6. Center text in text box: click on text box then click the text-centering icon.
  7. Make the text flow around the text box: right-click on the figure > Wrap Text > Square.
  8. Drag the text box under the figure.
  9. Hold down shift key and click on the figure (both the text box and figure will be selected).
  10. Click: DRAWING TOOLS > FORMAT > Align [Arrange] > Center (to align textbox with figure).
  11. Click: DRAWING TOOLS > FORMAT > Group [Arrange] > Group (to make it one object).
  12. Right-click on the group > Wrap Text > Square.
  13. Drag the group to an appropriate place.

 

Margins

Purpose: Adjust left, right, top and bottom margins.

  1. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Margins [Page Setup] > select a style or Custom Margins.

     

Tabs and hanging indents

Purpose: Create professional looking documents and reference lists.

  1. Always use tabs, never use spaces, for aligning text.
  2. Click: HOME > down arrow in [Paragraph] > Tabs...
  3. Then enter appropriate information.
Use Ctrl-t to create a hanging indent (use Shift-Ctrl-T to remove the hanging indent).

Slide the icons on the ruler bar to adjust the amount of indent. To show the ruler bar, click: VIEW > Ruler.

 

Macros and shortcut keys

Purpose: Minimize the number of keystrokes to get something done.

To write a macro:

  1. Click: VIEW > Macros down arrow (not the spreadsheet icon) [Macro] > Record Macro.
  2. Click the 'keyboard' icon > place cursor in the 'Press New Shortcut Key' field.
  3. Choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter). Look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use.
  4. Click: Assign > Close.
  5. Press or click whatever needs to be recorded in the macro.
  6. Click: VIEW > Macros down arrow [Macro] > Stop Recording.

To create a shortcut key for commonly used symbols:

  1. Click: INSERT > Symbol [Symbols] > More Symbols.
  2. Choose a symbol.
  3. Click 'Shortcut Key'.
  4. Choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter). Look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use).
  5. Click: Assign > Close > Close.

 

Mail merge using an Excel database

Purpose: Use Excel as the database, and Word, to create form letters, mailing labels, or envelopes.

  1. Create a form letter in Word (do not type anything where the data fields will reside).
  2. Click: MAILINGS > Start Mail Merge [Start Mail Merge] > Letters.
  3. Click: Select Recipients [Start Mail Merge] > Use Existing List > browse to an Excel file with addresses.
  4. Select the file with addresses and select the sheet within the file (if necessary).
  5. Move cursor to the location in the form letter where a merge field will be added.
  6. Click: Insert Merge Field [Write & Insert Fields] > select a field > Insert > Close.
  7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 above for all required merge fields.
  8. Save the form letter: File > Save As > select file name and folder.
  9. Click: Finish & Merge [Finish] > Edit Individual Documents > All > OK.
  10. The merged file can edited, saved, or printed.

 

Getting data ready for Excel

Purpose: Excel can parse tab-delimited files into appropriate cells. Datasets often are separated by multiple spaces, not tabs. Replacing multiple spaces with one tab character will allow the tab-delimited file to be parsed directly into Excel. This is a multiple step process.

Show the codes by clicking: HOME > ¶ icon [Paragraph].
Common codes are: spaces (·), tabs (→), and hard returns (¶).

First, replace multiple spaces with one space:

  1. Click: HOME > Replace [Editing] > type two spaces (tap the space bar twice) in the 'Find what:' field.
  2. Type one space in the 'Replace with:' field.
  3. Click: Replace All.
  4. Click: OK.
  5. Repeat the two steps above until Word has made 0 replacements.

Now, replace the single space with a single tab character:

  1. Click: HOME > replace [Editing] > type one space (tap the space bar once) in the 'Find what:' field. Be sure that only one space exists in this field.
  2. Click in the 'Replace with:' text field.
  3. Click: More > Special > Tab character (make sure only ^t is in this field – no spaces). 
  4. Be sure the tab character (^t) is in the 'Replace with:' field, and the 'Find what:' has one space.
  5. Click: Replace All.
  6. If the line is longer than the page width, then select the entire document (Ctrl-a) and reduce the font size so a line wrap does not exist.

Finally, copy the document and paste it into Excel:

  1. Select the entire document, click: HOME > Select [Editing] > Select All (or use: Ctrl-a).
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon [Clipboard] (or use: Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to a blank worksheet in Excel.
  4. Click in cell A1.
  5. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Unicode Text > OK.

 

Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word

  1. Select a range of cells in Excel.
  2. Click: Home > copy (or use: Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (If Word is already open, use Alt-tab).
  4. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Microsoft Excel worksheet object > OK.
  5. Depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the Excel object to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the object; not the edge of the object. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the Excel object.
  6. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click on the spreadsheet > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  7. Click somewhere in the middle of the Excel object and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.

 

Bringing Excel graphs into Word

  1. Click in the Chart Area of a graph.
  2. Click: HOME > Copy icon [Clipboard]
  3. Switch to Word.
  4. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Microsoft Office Excel Chart Object > OK.
  5. Click on the graph, then depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the graph to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the graph; not the edge of the graph. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the graph.
  6. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click in the Chart Area > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  7. Click somewhere in the middle of the graph and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.

 

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MS Word 2010

Purpose: Use to write documents.


Topics for Word 2010
General notes Editing notes Moving around the document Footnotes

Numbering and bullets

Insert a table Sorting text Page numbering and sections Table of Contents Bringing pictures into Word
Margins Tabs and hanging indents Macros and shortcut keys    
Mail merge using an Excel database Getting data ready for Excel Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word Bringing Excel graphs into Word  


General notes

Use the FILE tab (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'. In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] within the TABS are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

 

Editing notes

 

Moving around the document

Purpose: Use the keyboard to move the cursor.

 

Footnotes

Purpose: To put comments in the footer that are numbered sequentially throughout the text.

  1. Select the Print Layout view, click: VIEW > Print Layout [Document Views].
  2. Place the cursor in the document where a footnote is to be placed.
  3. Click: REFERENCES > Insert Footnote [Footnote].
  4. Enter appropriate footnote information.

 

Numbering and bullets

Purpose: Create automatically numbered or bulleted lists.

  1. Click: HOME, then click the numbering or bullet icon, then start typing the list,
    or,
    Block a list, then click: HOME > then choose the number or bullet icon.
  2. In the Paragraph Group, use down arrow adjacent to the bullet icon to change the style, or the multi-level list icon (and adjacent indenting icon) to make a hierarchal list.

To disable the automatic bullet and numbering system, click: FILE > Options > Proofing > Autocorrect Options > Autoformat > deselect 'Automatic Bulleted Lists'.

 

Insert a table

Purpose: build a table within Word.

  1. Place the cursor in document where you want to start a new table.
  2. Click: INSERT > Table.
  3. Choose appropriate number of columns and rows from the graphical array and click.

To customize a table:

  1. Click anywhere in table.
  2. Click: TABLE TOOLS > DESIGN or LAYOUT
  3. Adjust the table anyway you want.

 

Sorting text

Purpose: to sort rows of text for lists.

  1. Block the text to sort.
  2. Click: HOME > sort icon (AZ↓) [Paragraph].
  3. Make appropriate choices.

 

Page numbering and sections

Purpose: Create sections in order to control to the style of the footer or header (which includes page numbering) in each section.

For example, a title page and table of contents would be one section without a footer or header (no page numbers), the body of the text would be the second section with page numbers that start at page number one, and the appendices would be a third section with a completely different footer (or header) and page number style.

The simplest way to insert page numbers, although with very little control:

  1. Click: INSERT > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Bottom of Page > select style.

To create different sections with different footers (a skill that should be mastered):

  1. Remove any hard page breaks – let the section break force a new page.
  2. Move the cursor to the location where you want add a section break (and new page).
  3. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Breaks icon [Page Setup] > Section Breaks Next Page.
  4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 above to create as many sections as required.
  5. Move the cursor to the section where you want to add a footer, INSERT > Footer icon [Header & Footer] > Edit Footer.
  6. Turn off 'Link to Previous' by clicking: Link To Previous icon [Navigation]. Now the footers in both sections are not linked so changes made in one footer will not affect the other footer.
  7. Add appropriate footer information and add automatic page numbering by clicking: Quick Parts [Insert] > Field > Page > choose format > OK.
  8. Move to the second (or next) section by clicking: DESIGN > Next [Navigation].
  9. Reset page numbering in any section by clicking: DESIGN > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Format Page Numbers > Start At > choose a page number to start.

Remember, forcing a new page (by pressing Ctrl-Enter) does not start a new section; the footer remains the same.
Force a new page when it is appropriate to have a subheading or paragraph start at the top of a new page.
Creating new sections allow for control of the information presented in the footer.

 

Table of contents

  1. Use an existing Word document and block off text (for example, a subheading or a few words) to be used as a heading in the Table of Contents (TOC).
  2. Click REFERENCES > Add Text icon [Table of Contents] > select appropriate level.
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all of the entries to be used in the TOC.
  4. Click in the section of the document where the TOC is to be created. This section should be near the top of the document. Tap Ctrl-Enter to force a new page so the TOC is on its own page.
  5. Click: REFERENCES > Table of Contents [Table of Contents] > select a default style (or define a new style).

Once the TOC has been generated, and the documented edited, the TOC may need to be regenerated (because the headings may have moved to different pages from the editing process). To regenerate the TOC:

  1. Click: REFERENCES > Update Table [Table of Contents] > make a selection > OK.

The style and format of the headings and the TOC may be modified.

  1. Click: REFERENCES > Table of Contents [Table of Contents] > Insert Table of Contents.
  2. Click: Modify > select level > Modify > make appropriate choices.
  3. Click: OK > OK > OK > Yes.

 

Bringing pictures into Word

  1. Click: INSERT > Picture.
  2. Locate the file in a folder, then click: Insert.
  3. Drag a handle on the figure to resize the figure (keep the shift key depressed to maintain the aspect ratio).
  4. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click on the figure > Text Wrapping > Square.

Better yet, get fancy with figures:

First, format the figure (shape, bevels, shadows, etc.), then create a figure caption, group the figure with the caption, and make the text flow around the group.

  1. Double-click picture and adjust Picture Shape, Picture Border, and Picture Effects [Picture Styles].
  2. Click: INSERT > Text Box [Text] > Simple Text Box
  3. Type in the figure caption, for example: Figure 1. Title of Figure (Author, Year).
  4. Remove border, Right-click on text box:  Format Shape > Line Color > No line > Close.
  5. Center text, Right-click on text box then click the text-centering icon.
  6. Drag the text box under the figure.
  7. Hold down shift key and click on the figure (both the text box and figure will be selected).
  8. Click: DRAWING TOOLS > FORMAT > Group [Arrange] > Group
  9. Right-click on the group > Wrap Text > Square > OK.
  10. Drag the group to an appropriate place.

 

Margins

Purpose: Adjust left, right, top and bottom margins.

  1. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Margins [Page Setup] > select a style or Custom Margins.

     

Tabs and hanging indents

Purpose: Create professional looking documents and reference lists.

  1. Always use tabs, not spaces, for aligning text.
  2. Click: HOME > down arrow in [Paragraph] > Tabs...
  3. Then enter appropriate information.
Use Ctrl-t to create a hanging indent (use Shift-Ctrl-T to remove the hanging indent).

Slide the icons on the ruler bar to adjust the amount of indent. To show the ruler bar, click: VIEW > Ruler.

 

Macros and shortcut keys

Purpose: Minimize the number of keystrokes to get something done.

To write a macro:

  1. Click: VIEW > Macros down arrow (not the spreadsheet icon) [Macro] > Record Macro.
  2. Click the 'keyboard' icon > place cursor in the 'Press New Shortcut Key' field.
  3. Choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter). Look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use.
  4. Click: Assign > Close.
  5. Press or click whatever needs to be recorded in the macro.
  6. Click: VIEW > Macros down arrow [Macro] > Stop Recording.

To create a shortcut key for commonly used symbols:

  1. Click: INSERT > Symbol [Symbols] > More Symbols.
  2. Choose a symbol.
  3. Click 'Shortcut Key'.
  4. Choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter). Look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use).
  5. Click: Assign > Close > Close.

 

Mail merge using an Excel database

Purpose: Use Excel as the database, and Word, to create form letters, mailing labels, or envelopes.

  1. Create a form letter in Word (do not type anything where the data fields will reside).
  2. Click: MAILINGS > Start Mail Merge [Start Mail Merge] > Letters.
  3. Click: Select Recipients [Start Mail Merge] > Use Existing List > browse to an Excel file with addresses.
  4. Move cursor to the location in the form letter where a merge field will be added.
  5. Click: Insert Merge Field [Write & Insert Fields] > select a field > Insert > Close.
  6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 above for all required merge fields.
  7. Save the form letter: Office button > Save as > select file name and folder.
  8. Click: Finish & Merge [Finish] > Edit Individual Documents > All > OK.
  9. The merged file can edited, saved, or printed.

 

Getting data ready for Excel

Purpose: Excel can parse tab-delimited files into appropriate cells. Datasets often are separated by multiple spaces, not tabs. Replacing multiple spaces with one tab character will allow the tab-delimited file to be parsed directly into Excel. This is a multiple step process.

Show the codes by clicking: HOME > ¶ icon [Paragraph].
Common codes are: spaces (·), tabs (→), and hard returns (¶).

First, replace multiple spaces with one space:

  1. Click: HOME > Replace [Editing] > type two spaces (tap the space bar twice) in the 'Find what:' field.
  2. Type one space in the 'Replace with:' field.
  3. Click: Replace All.
  4. Click: OK.
  5. Repeat the two steps above until Word has made 0 replacements.

Now, replace the single space with a single tab character:

  1. Click: HOME > replace [Editing] > type one space (tap the space bar once) in the 'Find what:' field. Be sure that only one space exists in this field.
  2. Click in the 'Replace with:' text field.
  3. Click: More > Special > Tab character (^t). 
  4. Be sure the tab character (^t) is in the Replace with:' field and not the 'Find what:' field and there are no spaces in this field.
  5. Click: Replace All.
  6. If the line is longer than the page width, then select the entire document (Ctrl-a) and reduce the font size so a line wrap does not exist.

Finally, copy the document and paste it into Excel:

  1. Select the entire document, click: HOME > Select [Editing] > Select All (or use: Ctrl-a).
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon [Clipboard] (or use: Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to a blank worksheet in Excel.
  4. Click in cell A1.
  5. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Unicode Text > OK.

 

Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word

  1. Select a range of cells in Excel.
  2. Click: edit > copy (or use: Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (If Word is already open, use Alt-tab).
  4. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Microsoft Excel worksheet object > OK.
  5. Depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the Excel object to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the object; not the edge of the object. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the Excel object.
  6. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click on the spreadsheet > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  7. Click somewhere in the middle of the Excel object and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.

 

Bringing Excel graphs into Word

  1. Click in the Chart Area of a graph.
  2. Click: HOME > Copy icon [Clipboard]
  3. Switch to Word.
  4. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Microsoft Office Excel Chart Object > OK.
  5. Click on the graph, then depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the graph to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the graph; not the edge of the graph. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the graph.
  6. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click in the Chart Area > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  7. Click somewhere in the middle of the graph and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.

 

top of section

 



MS Word 2007

Purpose: Use to write documents.


Topics for Word 2007

General notes

Editing notes

Moving around the document

Footnotes

Numbering and bullets

Insert a table

Sorting text

Page numbering and sections

Table of Contents

Bringing pictures into Word

Margins

Tabs and hanging indents

Macros and shortcut keys

 

 

Mail merge using an Excel database

Getting data ready for Excel

Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word

Bringing Excel graphs into Word

 

General notes


Use the Office button (top left) to access basic file and print commands; most of the other commands are found in the ribbon (across the top of the screen). The ribbon has 'tabs' and each tab has 'groups'. In the notes that follow, the TABS are capitalized and the [groups] within the TABS are indicated in [brackets]. Italicized words mean make a choice.

 

Editing notes

 

Moving around the document

Purpose: Use the keyboard to move the cursor.

 

Footnotes

Purpose: To put comments in the footer that are numbered sequentially throughout the text.

  1. Select the Print Layout view.
  2. Place the cursor in the document where a footnote is to be placed.
  3. Click: REFERENCES > Insert Footnote [Footnote].
  4. Enter appropriate footnote information.

 

Numbering and bullets

Purpose: Create automatically numbered or bulleted lists.

  1. Click: HOME, then click the numbering or bullet icon, then start typing the list,
    or,
    Block a list, then click: HOME > then choose the number or bullet icon.
  2. In the Paragraph Group, use down arrow adjacent to the bullet icon to change the style, or the multi-level list icon (and adjacent indenting icon) to make a hierarchal list.

    To disable the automatic bullet and numbering system, click: Office button > Word Options > Proofing > Autocorrect Options > Autoformat > deselect 'Automatic Bulleted Lists'.

 

Insert a table

Purpose: build a table within Word.

  1. Place the cursor in document where you want to start a new table.
  2. Click: INSERT > Table.
  3. Choose appropriate number of columns and rows from the graphical array, or click: insert table and define a new table.

    To customize a table:

  4. Click anywhere in table.
  5. Use the pop-up tab (on the top right) TABLE TOOLS that includes the groups [Design] and [Layout].
  6. Adjust the table anyway you want.

 

Sorting text

Purpose: to sort rows of text for lists.

  1. Block the text to sort.
  2. Click: HOME > sort icon (A↓Z) [Paragraph].
  3. Make appropriate choices.

 

Page numbering and sections

Purpose: Create sections in order to control to the style of the footer or header (which includes page numbering) in each section. For example, a title page and table of contents would be one section without a footer or header (no page numbers), the body of the text would be the second section with page numbers that start at page number one, and the appendices would be a third section with a completely different footer (or header) and page number style.

The simplest way to insert page numbers, although with very little control:

  1. Click: INSERT > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Bottom of Page > select style.

To create different sections with different footers:

  1. Remove any hard page breaks – let the section break force a new page.
  2. Move the cursor to the location where you want add a section break (and new page).
  3. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Breaks icon [Page Setup] > Section Breaks Next Page.
  4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 above to create as many sections as required.
  5. Move the cursor to the section where you want to add a footer, INSERT > Footer icon [Header & Footer] > Edit Footer.
  6. Add appropriate footer information and use Quick Parts [Insert] > Field > Page > choose format > OK.
  7. Move to the second (or next) section by clicking: DESIGN > Show Next icon [Navigation].
  8. Turn off 'Link to Previous' by clicking: Link To Previous icon [Navigation]
  9. Edit the footer, click: DESIGN > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Bottom of Page.
  10. Reset page numbering in any section by clicking: DESIGN > Page Number [Header & Footer] > Format Page Numbers > Start At > choose a page number to start.

Remember, forcing a new page (by pressing Ctrl-Enter) does not start a new section; the footer remains the same. Force a new page when it is appropriate to have a subheading or paragraph start at the top of a new page.

 

Table of contents

  1. Use an existing Word document and block off the text to be used as a heading in the Table of Contents (TOC).
  2. Click REFERENCES > Add Text icon [Table of Contents] > select appropriate level.
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all of the entries to be used in the TOC.
  4. Click in the section of the document where the TOC is to be created. This section should be near the top of the document. Tap Ctrl-Enter to force a new page so the TOC is on its own page.
  5. Click: REFERENCES > Table of Contents [Table of Contents] > select a default style (or define a new style).

Once the TOC has been generated, and the documented edited, the TOC may need to be regenerated (because the headings may have moved to different pages from the editing process). To regenerate the TOC:

  1. Click: REFERENCES > Update Table [Table of Contents] > make a selection > OK.

The style and format of the headings and the TOC may be modified.

  1. Click: REFERENCES > Table of Contents [Table of Contents] > Insert Table of Contents.
  2. Click: Modify > select level > Modify > make appropriate choices.
  3. Click: OK > OK > OK > Yes.

 

Bringing pictures into Word

  1. Click: INSERT > Picture.
  2. Locate the file in a folder, then click: Insert.
  3. Drag a handle on the figure to resize the figure (keep the shift key depressed to maintain the aspect ratio).
  4. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click on the figure > Text Wrapping > Square.

Better yet, get fancy with figures: format the figure (shape, bevels, shadows, etc.), create a figure caption, group the figure with the caption, and make the text flow around the group.

  1. Double-click picture and adjust Picture Shape, Picture Border, and Picture Effects [Picture Styles].
  2. Create figure caption place holder, right-click picture: Insert Caption > OK (add the figure caption later).
  3. Delete the automatically inserted figure number, enter appropriate figure number, figure caption, and reference.
  4. To group the caption and the figure, create a drawing canvas, click: INSERT > Shapes [Illustrations] > New Drawing Canvas (it might be easier to create the drawing canvas in a new file).
  5. Right-click on figure > Text Wrapping > Square.
  6. Cut the figure from the text and paste it into the Drawing Canvas.
  7. Cut the caption from the text and paste it into the Drawing Canvas.
  8. Format the text in the caption (choose: alignment, font size, color, etc...)
  9. Manually align the objects, or, click the figure and shift-click the caption, then click: PICTURE > FORMAT > alignment icon [Arrange] > Align Center.
  10. With both the figure and the caption selected (and aligned), click: PICTURE > FORMAT > group icon [Arrange] > Group.
  11. Right-click on the group > Cut.
  12. Move to the proper location in the document, right-click > Paste.
  13. Right-click on the group > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  14. Drag the group to an appropriate place.
  15. The caption (content and style) can be modified at any time.

 

Margins

Purpose: Adjust left, right, top and bottom margins.

  1. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > Margins [Page Setup] > select a style or Custom Margins.

     

Tabs and hanging indents

Purpose: Create professional looking documents and reference lists.

  1. Always use tabs, not spaces, for aligning text.
  2. Click: PAGE LAYOUT > open the paragraph dialogue box by clicking the arrow on the bottom right of the [Paragraph group].
  3. Click: Tabs > enter appropriate information.
  4. Use Ctrl-t to create a hanging indent (use Shift-Ctrl-T to remove the hanging indent).
  5. Slide the icons on the ruler bar to adjust the amount of indent. To show the ruler bar, click: VIEW > Ruler [Show/Hide].

 

Macros and shortcut keys

Purpose: Minimize the number of keystrokes to get something done.

To write a macro:

  1. Click: VIEW > Macros down arrow (not the spreadsheet icon) [Macro] > Record Macro.
  2. Click the 'keyboard' icon > place cursor in the 'Press New Shortcut Key' field.
  3. Choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter). Look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use.
  4. Click: Assign > Close.
  5. Press or click whatever needs to be recorded in the macro.
  6. Click: VIEW > Macros down arrow [Macro] > Stop Recording.

To create a shortcut key for commonly used symbols:

  1. Click: INSERT > Symbol [Symbols] > More Symbols.
  2. Choose a symbol.
  3. Click 'Shortcut Key'.
  4. Choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter). Look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use).
  5. Click: Assign > Close > Close.

 

Mail merge using an Excel database

Purpose: Use Excel as the database, and Word, to create form letters, mailing labels, or envelopes.

  1. Create a form letter in Word (do not type anything where the data fields will reside).
  2. Click: MAILINGS > Start Mail Merge [Start Mail Merge] > Letters.
  3. Click: Select Recipients [Start Mail Merge] > Use Existing List > browse to an Excel file with addresses.
  4. Move cursor to the location in the form letter where a merge field will be added.
  5. Click: Insert Merge Field [Write & Insert Fields] > select a field > Insert > Close.
  6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 above for all required merge fields.
  7. Save the form letter: Office button > Save as > select file name and folder.
  8. Click: Finish & Merge [Finish] > Edit Individual Documents > All > OK.
  9. The merged file can edited, saved, or printed.

 

Getting data ready for Excel

Purpose: Excel can parse tab-delimited files into appropriate cells. Datasets often are separated by multiple spaces, not tabs. Replacing multiple spaces with one tab character will allow the tab-delimited file to be parsed directly into Excel. This is a multiple step process.

Show the codes by clicking: HOME > ¶ icon [Paragraph].
Common codes are: spaces (·), tabs (→), and hard returns (¶).

First, replace multiple spaces with one space:

  1. Click: HOME > Editing > Replace > type two spaces (tap the space bar twice) in the 'Find what:' field.
  2. Type one space in the 'Replace with:' field.
  3. Click: Replace All.
  4. Click: OK.
  5. Repeat the two steps above until Word has made 0 replacements.

Now, replace the single space with a single tab character:

  1. Click: HOME > Edit > replace > type one space (tap the space bar once) in the 'Find what:' field. Be sure that only one space exists in this field.
  2. Click in the 'Replace with:' text field.
  3. Click: More > Special > Tab character (^t). 
  4. Be sure the tab character (^t) is in the Replace with:' field and not the 'Find what:' field and there are no spaces in this field.
  5. Click: Replace All.
  6. If the line is longer than the page width, then select the entire document (Ctrl-a) and reduce the font size so a line wrap does not exist.

Finally, copy the document into Excel:

  1. Select the entire document, click: HOME > Editing > Select > Select All (or use: Ctrl-a).
  2. Click: HOME > copy icon [Clipboard] (or use: Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to a blank worksheet in Excel.
  4. Click in cell A1.
  5. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Unicode Text > OK.

 

Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word

  1. Select a range of cells in Excel.
  2. Click: edit > copy (or use: Ctrl-c).
  3. Switch to Word (If Word is already open, use Alt-tab).
  4. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Microsoft Excel worksheet object > OK.
  5. Depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the Excel object to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the object; not the edge of the object. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the Excel object.
  6. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click on the spreadsheet > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  7. Click somewhere in the middle of the Excel object and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.

 

Bringing Excel graphs into Word

  1. Click in the Chart Area of a graph.
  2. Click: HOME > Copy icon [Clipboard]
  3. Switch to Word.
  4. Click: HOME > Paste down arrow icon [Clipboard] > Paste Special > Microsoft Office Excel Chart Object > OK.
  5. Click on the graph, then depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the graph to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the graph; not the edge of the graph. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the graph.
  6. Make the text flow around the figure: Right-click in the Chart Area > Format Object > Layout > Square > OK.
  7. Click somewhere in the middle of the graph and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.
 

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MS Word 2003

Purpose: Use to write documents.


Topics for Word 2003

General notes

Editing notes

Moving around the document

Footnotes

Numbering and bullets

Insert a table

Sorting text

Page numbering

Table of contents

Bringing pictures into Word

Margins

Tabs and hanging indents

Macros and shortcut keys

Mail merge using an Excel database

Getting data ready for Excel

Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word

Bringing Excel graphs into Word

 

 

 


General notes


Editing notes

Moving around the document
Purpose: Use the keyboard to move the cursor.

Footnotes

Numbering and bullets
Purpose: Create automatically numbered lists (or bulleted lists).

Insert a table

  1. Place the cursor where you want to start a new set of columns/tables.
  2. Click: table > insert table.
  3. Choose appropriate number of columns and rows.

For other features with tables, be sure to select the table first by:

  1. Click anywhere in table.
  2. Click table > select table.
  3. Then adjust the table anyway you want.

Sorting text

  1. Block the text to sort.
  2. Click: table > sort.
  3. Make appropriate choices.

Page numbering
Purpose: Create sections in order to control to the style of the footer or header (which includes page numbering) in each section. For example, a title page and table of contents would be one section without a footer or header (no page numbers), the body of the text would be the second section with page numbering that starts at page number one, and the appendices would be a third section with a completely different footer or header and page number style.

To create different sections with different footers :

  1. Remove any "hard page breaks" – let the section break force a new page.
  2. Move the cursor to the location where you want a section break (and new page).
  3. Click: insert > break > section break next page > OK.
  4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 above to create as many sections as required by the document.
  5. Move the cursor to the section where you want to add a footer (or header).
  6. Click: view > header/footer > header/footer icon (i.e. to switch to footer) > turn off "link to previous" (by clicking icon) > add appropriate footer information.
  7. Edit the footer using the footer icons (including the page number icon – do not type a page number in the footer).
  8. Reset page numbering in any section by clicking in the section, then click: insert > page numbers > format > type in the correct page number > OK > OK.

The simplest way to insert page numbers, although with very little control, is to click: insert > page numbers > OK.

Remember, forcing a new page (by pressing Ctrl-Enter) does not start a new section; the footer remains the same. Force a new page when it is appropriate to have a subheading or paragraph start at the top of a new page.

Table of contents

  1. Use an existing Word document and block off the text to be used as a heading in the Table of contents (TOC).
  2. Choose a style (left-most box on the toolbar): Heading 1, Heading 2... (each level of heading represents a different level in the Table of Contents).
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all of the entries to be used in the TOC.
  4. Click in the section of the document where the TOC is to be created. This section should be near the top of the document. Tap Ctrl-Enter to force a new page so the TOC is on its own page.
  5. Click: insert > reference > index and tables > table of contents > OK.

Once the TOC has been generated, and the documented edited, the TOC may need to be regenerated (because the headings may have moved to different pages from the editing process). To regenerate the TOC:

  1. Click: insert > reference > index and tables > table of contents > OK.
  2. Click: 'OK' to replace the current TOC.

The style and format of the headings and the TOC may be modified.

  1. Click: insert > reference > index and tables > table of contents > modify.
  2. Click on the style to be modified.
  3. Click 'modify' and make appropriate choices.

Bringing pictures into Word

  1. Insert > picture > from file.
  2. Locate the file, then click 'insert'.

       or

  1. Copy from another document or application.
  2. Paste into the Word document.

       or, get fancy with figures:

  1. Create a text box for the caption by clicking on the 'drawing' icon and then clicking the 'text box icon'.
  2. Drag the cursor to create a text box.
  3. Type the following into the text box: Figure 1. Title (author, year).
  4. Size the text box by dragging a corner.
  5. Right click on the text box when you see the 4-arrow cursor then remove the border and shading by clicking: format text box > colors and lines > line color (no line) > OK.
  6. Make sure the 4-arrow cursor exists and then drag the text box near the image.
  7. Right click on picture, then click: format picture > layout > square (so image can be selected and later grouped to the text box).
  8. Hold down the shift key and select the text box (n.b.: the figure should already be selected).
  9. Right click on the objects and group them, click: grouping > group.
  10. To set the text to flow around the group: right click on the group > format object > layout > square > OK. Be sure the ‘format object’ option exists in the drop-down window; if not, tap 'Esc' and right-click somewhere else on the object until the ‘format object’ option appears.

Margins
Purpose: Adjust left, right, top and bottom margins.

  1. File > page setup > margins tab.
  2. Choose margins and apply to 'whole document'.

    Or, drag the icons on the ruler bar to adjust the left and right margins.

Tabs and hanging indents
Purpose: Create professional looking documents and reference lists.

Macros and shortcut keys
Purpose: Minimize the number of keystrokes to get something done.

To create a shortcut key for a commonly used symbol:

  1. Choose a symbol, click: insert > symbol.
  2. Click: shortcut, then choose a key combination (look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use (like Ctrl-x or Ctrl-c) .
  3. Click: assign > close > close.

To write a macro:

  1. Click: tools > macro > record new macro.
  2. Click 'keyboard' icon > place cursor in the 'press new shortcut key' field.
  3. choose a keystroke combination (e.g.: Alt-letter, or Alt-Shift-letter; look to be sure that the key combination is not already in use).
  4. Click: assign > close.
  5. Press or click whatever needs to be recorded in the macro.
  6. Click the stop recording icon (box).

Mail merge using an Excel database
Purpose: Use Excel as the database and Word to write the form letters, or mailing labels, or envelopes.

  1. Create a form letter (do not type anything where the merged data will reside).
  2. Insert the merge codes and associate the database by clicking: tools > mail merge > create > form letters > active window.
  3. Get data > open data source.
  4. Choose files of type: .xls.
  5. Select the appropriate subdirectory and click on the database file.
  6. Select entire spreadsheet.
  7. Edit main document.
  8. Click: insert merge fields (from toolbar).
  9. Save the form letter.
  10. Using the Mail Merge toolbar, choose the 'mail merge' icon (third icon from the right).
  11. Merge the data and the document into a new file.

Getting data ready for Excel
Purpose: To replace multiple spaces with one tab character; the tab-delimited file can then be parsed directly into Excel. The goal is to convert the text file such that a tab character is placed between each value that is to be parsed into a cell. This is a multiple step process.

First, show the codes by clicking the backwards 'P' (found on the top right of the toolbar). Spaces will look like dots, tabs will look like right arrows, and hard returns will look like a backwards 'P'.

Then, replace multiple spaces with one space:

  1. Edit > replace > type two spaces (tap the space bar twice) in the 'Find what:' field.
  2. Type one space in the 'Replace with:' field
  3. Click: replace all
  4. Click: OK
  5. Repeat the two steps above until Word has made 0 replacements.

Now, replace the single space with a tab character:

  1. Edit > replace > type one space (tap the space bar once) in the 'Find what:' field.
  2. Click in the 'Replace with:' text field.
  3. Click: More > Special > Tab character
  4. Be sure the ^t (tab character) is in the Replace with:' field and not the 'Find what:' field.
  5. Click: replace all
  6. If the line is longer than the page width, then select the entire document (Ctrl-a) and reduce the font size so a line wrap does not exist.

Finally, copy the document into Excel:

  1. Select the entire document (Ctrl-a).
  2. Click: copy.
  3. Switch to a blank worksheet in Excel.
  4. Right-click in cell A1 > paste special > Unicode text.

Bringing Excel spreadsheets into Word

  1. Select a range of cells.
  2. Click: edit > copy.
  3. Switch to Word.
  4. Click: edit > paste special > Microsoft Excel worksheet object > OK.
  5. Depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the Excel object to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the object; not the edge of the object. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the Excel object.
  6. Click somewhere in the middle of the Excel object and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.

Bringing Excel graphs into Word

  1. Click in the Chart Area of a graph.
  2. Click: edit > copy.
  3. Switch to Word.
  4. Click: edit > paste .
  5. Depress the Shift key and drag a corner handle of the graph to size it appropriately. A corner handle is a box on one of the corners of the graph; not the edge of the graph. Holding down the Shift key will maintain the aspect ratio of the graph.
  6. Click somewhere in the middle of the graph and drag it to an appropriate position on the page.
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Adobe Photoshop CS3

Purpose: Edit digital photography or create new images.
The topics described below just barely scratch the surface of this powerful program.


Topics for Photoshop CS3 (10.0.1)

General notes

Selecting parts of a picture

Sizing pictures

Saving files

Transparent backgrounds


General notes

 

Selecting parts of a picture

Selecting a part of an image is a simple way to crop an image, or, selected parts of an image may be altered (without affecting the non-selected parts of the image).

  1. Open an existing file.
  2. Use the marquee selection tool (top left of toolbar), lasso (beneath the marquee tool) or magic wand (right of the lasso too) and select a portion of a picture.
  3. Click: Edit > Copy.
  4. Click: File > New > OK.
  5. Click: Edit > Paste.
    Alternatively, the selected parts of an image may be modified.

When using the marquee selection tool, choose an appropriate style (on the toolbar):

 

Sizing pictures

  1. Open an image.
  2. Click: Image > Image Size (be sure 'Scale Styles', 'Resample Image' and 'Constrain Proportions;' are checked).
  3. Choose a pixel width and height (use inches and the 'print size' option).
  4. Click: OK.

 

Saving files

To save file as a .bmp:

  1. Click: Image > mode > indexed color > flatten layers > OK.
  2. Click: File > Save As > choose .bmp as the 'Format'.
  3. Select a folder and a filename.

To save a .gif for the Internet:

  1. Click: File > Save for Web & Devices > Save > select a folder and a filename > Save.

 

Transparent Backgrounds

  1. Click: File > Open (open the file to edit).
  2. Maximize picture on screen.
  3. Click the magic wand tool (from the toolbox).
  4. Use the magic wand tool and click on the color of the object to be made transparent.
  5. Use 'Shift-click' to select other objects to make transparent.
  6. Click: Select >Inverse.
  7. Click: Edit > Copy.
  8. Click: File > New > OK.
  9. Click: Edit > Paste.
  10. Click: Window > Layers (to open the Layers window)
  11. Click the ‘eye’ icon the background layer to turn off the background.
  12. Click: File > Save for Web & Devices > Save.
  13. Enter appropriate file name and location for the file.
 

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Adobe Photoshop CS

Purpose: Edit digital photography or create new images.
The topics described below just barely scratch the surface of this powerful program.


Topics for Photoshop CS (7.0.1)

General notes

Selecting parts of a picture

Sizing pictures

Saving files

Transparent backgrounds


General notes

Selecting parts of a picture

  1. Open an existing file.
  2. Use the marquee selection tool (top left of toolbar), magic wand, or lasso, and select a portion of a picture.
  3. Click: Edit > copy.
  4. Click: File > new > OK.
  5. Click: Edit > paste.

When using the marquee selection tool, choose an appropriate style (on the toolbar):

 Sizing pictures

  1. Open an image.
  2. Image > image size (be sure 'resample image' and 'constrain proportions;' are checked)
  3. Choose a pixel width and height (use inches and the 'print size' option).
  4. Click: OK.

Saving files

To save file as a .bmp:

  1. Click: Image > mode > indexed color > flatten layers > OK.
  2. Click: Save > save as > save in > you know the rest…

To save a .gif for the Internet:

  1. Click: File > save for web > save > save as > save in > you know the rest…

Transparent Backgrounds

  1. Click: File > open (open the file to edit).
  2. Maximize picture on screen.
  3. Click the magic wand tool (from the toolbox).
  4. Use the magic wand tool and click on the color of the object to be made transparent.
  5. Use 'Shift-click' to select other objects to make transparent.
  6. Click: Select > inverse.
  7. Click: Edit > copy.
  8. Click: File > new > OK.
  9. Click: Edit > paste.
  10. Click: Window > layers (to open the layers window)
  11. Click the ‘eye’ icon the background layer to turn off the background.
  12. Click: File > save for web > save.
  13. Enter appropriate file name and location for the file.
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Adobe Illustrator CS5

Purpose: Make posters using the drawing tools coupled with the ability to import text and images.
The topics described below just barely scratch the surface of this powerful program.


Topics for Illustrator

Basic setup

Sizing objects

Import graphics

Work with text

Align objects

Test print on LaserJet

 

 


Basic Setup
Purpose: Set the paper size and drawing size for the project.

  1. Choose appropriate units: edit > preferences > units > general > inches > OK.
  2. Click: file > new or open and existing file.
  3. Click: file > print > printer > 214 Plotter.
    Before leaving the screen, choose a paper size:
  4. Media size > ANSI E 34 x 44 > done.
  5. Click: file > document setup > width=34 and height = 44 > OK.
  6. Click: view > fit in window.
  7. Adjust rulers, click: view > show rulers (then, put the cursor in the upper left box and drag the origin to the appropriate place on the document).
  8. If necessary, use the 'page icon' to adjust placement of printable area.

Sizing objects

  1. Be sure to be in the preview mode by clicking: view > preview (if it says view > outline, then you are in the preview mode).
  2. Select nothing by clicking in the white space.
  3. Choose the direct selection tool (dark arrow, top of tool box).
  4. Depress 'Shift' and click on the edge to expand, drag the cursor, release the click, and finally release the 'Shift'.

    Or, right-click on the picture > transform > scale > % (choose a percentage change value) > OK.

Import Graphics

  1. Click: file > place.
  2. Click on image to be placed.
  3. Click 'Place'
  4. When saving the file check the box labeled 'include linked files' to have the graphics become part of the Illustrator file, or do not check the box to keep the graphics as separate files stored on the drive. The Illustrator file becomes very large and unwieldy when the graphics are linked to the Illustrator file.

Work with text
Purpose: Create a field to accept text.

  1. Create a field for text by using the text tool and dragging a box to the size and position required; do not just click the text tool and start typing; be sure to create a text box before inserting text.
  2. Copy and paste text into the field from other applications, or type it directly.
  3. Use: type > font (to bring up the control window for text).

To create a hanging indent:

  1. Select the text in the box box.
  2. Click: type > window > type > paragraph
  3. Set the value in the 'First line indent" window to an appropriate negative number.

Align objects
Purpose: Align objects on the page.

  1. Click: Windows > align.
  2. Select the first object to align.
  3. Hold down the Ctrl key and click on the other objects to align.
  4. Choose the appropriate alignment icon in the 'show align' toolbox.

Masks
Purpose: Masks allow one to crop an image using a pre-defined geometry.

  1. Place an image in the .ai file.
  2. Draw a mask on top of the image.
  3. Select both image and mask.
  4. Click: object > clipping mask > make. 
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Slide Scanner in the Bentley PLUIMMS Lab

Purpose: Scan 35 mm slides or negatives to create digital image files.

  1. Use the computer to the right of the scanner.
  2. Click: Start > programs > Polaroid Polacolor > Polacolor.
  3. Choose the film type (using the 'input' option on the right side).
  4. Click: preview.
  5. Mess around with the options.
  6. Click: the 'scan' tab, use 300 dpi.
  7. Click: scan.
  8. Choose a file name and location.
  9. Click: OK.
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Flatbed Scanner in the Bentley PLUIMMS Lab

Purpose: Scan pictures to create digital image files or scan text into word processing files.

To scan pictures

  1. Use the computer to the left of the scanner.
  2. Click: Start > programs > Adobe > Photoshop 7.0.1.
  3. Click: file > import > EpsonTWAIN Pro (to wake up the Epson scanning software).
  4. Make appropriate choices (on the right side).
  5. Click: preview.
  6. Crop the image using the marquee tool (default is already on).
  7. Click: scan.
  8. Click: close.
  9. Now Photoshop is active; do what is necessary.

 

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Film Recorder in the Bentley PLUIMMS Lab

Purpose: Copy images on screen to 35 mm film.

For existing .tiff or .psd files:

  1. Load the film; use Fujichrome 100 Sensia for color slide film, or Kodak Gold Plus for color print film.
  2. Tuck the leader into the take-up spool, close back, let the film wind to the last frame; the film runs backwards in the camera so the last picture will be number 1.
  3. The blue button on the top of the camera reports the film's ISO.
  4. Images on disk should be up to 20 Mb for color and up to 6 Mb for black and white.
  5. Click: Start > programs > graphics group > RasterPlus95.
  6. Click: edit > add files > select files > open.
  7. Click: edit > queue properties > and set it to: 4096 resolution and 1 copy.
  8. Click: edit > queue properties > options > film type > Fuji Sensia II.
  9. Click: File > Print Queue (to start printing images in the queue; 20 images may take several hours).
  10. If the roll is longer than the number of images, then either open the back and manually rewind the film, or shoot more images to use the entire roll.

Using PowerPoint:

  1. Load the film (see steps 1 - 3 above).
  2. Wake up PowerPoint and open the file to be recorded to film.
  3. Click: File > print.
  4. Click the down arrow in the Printer Name window and select RasterPlus95.
  5. Click: OK.
    (I've not tested this routine, so please let me know if it works!)
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